ancient egypt

By: Madeline Ortiz

Introduction

In the dry desert of Egypt where the Nile gently flows and the sphynx sitting tall and proud in front of the great pyramids; there were people called the egyptians who are known for treasure,hieroglyphics, and mummies. There are sandstorms and giant sand dunes. The egyptians are very hot in the sun's rays. It's not all bad in egypt. They have water and get to plant crops.

Map of Egypt and it's cities.

Stable Food Supply

The Egyptians begun farming in the timeline 10,000 BC.Also the egyptians invented a plow in 3000 BC.They use a ox to pull the plow. The soil is rich enough to plant crops.The guys control the plow while the women plant seeds in the back.Then the women water the plants.Since there is less rain and egyptians live in the desert, they get there water from rivers.There main river is the Nile river. The egyptians plant crops like grapes, grain, and figs. They cut grain with a curved sword called a sickle. The egyptians make food out of things. For example, they use grain to make bread and barley. Also they make grape juice out of grapes. The egyptians were the first to make beer. They also collect food like honey from bees.

figs

Sickle

Barley

Kinds of wheat and barley

Man and women farming

Social Structure

There are six layers of social structure. It's like a social pyramid. On the top of the pyramid is the most powerful person of egypt, the pharoh. The pharoh tells everyone what to do and rules a kingdom. The second in the line is the government who makes laws by the pharoh. Next is the priest who worship the gods like church. Then there the scribes who read and write on the walls. Also they create art and statues. Scribes are also called artisans. Last but not least are the slaves who work with no pay. There very poor and force to work with the scribes.

social pyramid

Slaves working

Statue of scribe writing

Religion

There are many gods that the egyptians used to believe in. Some of the most important gods are Ra, Anubis, Osiris, and Horus. Ra is the god of the Sun and goes on his boat called a solar boat from east to west on the Nile river with his friends. Anubis is the god of the dead and deals with turning the dead bodies into mummies. People started to think if Anubis was the son of Ra or Osiris or Anubis as a helper with Osiris dealing with the dead. Also Anubis is the god who weighed your heart when you die in the weighing of souls. Osiris is the god of Earth. One day a god named Seth got Osiris in a trunk and throw him into the Nile river. Seth and Osiris were brothers but Seth was super angry at Osiris as god of Earth. When her sister Isis found the trunk she tried to bury him but Seth got to the body and cut him to pieces. Then he hid the pieces all over Egypt; which means that Seth is now the god of Earth. Meanwhile Osiris was now the god of the underworld when he died. Anubis help Osiris while he was in the underworld. Soon Isis found all the pieces of Osiris's body. Then she made Osiris come back to life. After that they have a baby named Horus. Horus was the god of the sky and the protector of Egypt. To give his father revenged on Seth, Horus battle him. In the battle Horus lost his eye but soon found it and won the battle. Horus was now god of the Earth.All of these gods are worshiped by the egyptians. They give them food and built statues of them. They even turn animals into mummies. The egyptians need the gods for controlling there life and death.

Horus (left), Anubis (right), and the king Centre (center)

Weighing of souls ( Anubis weighing the heart of a women and a feather, Thoth writing all the bad things the human did to decide, Ammit waiting) If the heart is heavier than the feather Ammit will eat your heart and you will go to the underworld. If your heart is lighter than the feather then you will go to a happy place.

Ra (far left) in solar boat with the gods,Osiris (3rd far right)

System of Government

Everything in a kingdom was all owned by the Pharaoh. While the Pharaoh tells the priests what to do the priests tells the scribes what to do and so on. A kingdom has everything on government like we mostly have today. Laws, police, and court. The Vizier is the judge of the courtroom. He tells you if your guilty or not guilty and tells everyone the reasons why. A good Vizier must try to be fair. The Vizier also reports to the pharaoh of what is happening in the kingdom. Government also have laws. If someone breaks a law they will be punish, put on exile, or be hanged. There are many pharaohs the egyptian history. One of those pharaohs are Khufu, Senusret, Hatshepsut, and Rameses II. Khufu is the king who build the Great Pyramid of Giza and store grain. Senusret built the White Chapel. Hatshepsut was the very first woman as a pharaoh and made trading popular in Egypt. Rameses II was the first pharaoh who made the world’s first peace treaty. They all protect the civilization by storing food, trade, make peace, and be remember by generations to come.

Rameses II mummy

Hatshepsut mummy

The Arts

The paintings all over Egypt tells a story about there way of life, gods, history, or the passing of life. There statues show the passing pharaohs and the gods that they believe in. The egyptians have made instruments to play music like harps, rattles, trumpets, drums,clarinets, and guitars. Egyptians play music for religion or just for fun. They also dance to the music. Most of the musicians are women as slaves. Egyptians celebrated festivals and worshiping the gods and there ruler.

Musicians playing music

Painting of farmers working with livestock

The Grandiose festival

Advances in Technology

The egyptians invented medicine because many people died of sickness. It saved many lives. they also invented leather, cloth, and wool to make clothes. With leather egyptians started a fad by making jackets, hats, shoes, etc. It keeps them warm until wool was invented. Less people are using leather in Egypt. Also egyptians started to use papyrus to write in 3000 BC.

Leather Bag

Doctor making medicine

Papyrus reed (plant)

Written Language

Egyptian writing is mostly small pictures representing animals, people, or things. Pictures that are in walls are called hieroglyphics. The egyptians want to record anything in there lifetime. Each symbol means a sound. Scribes make these by using a chisel and a hammer for writing in stone. In papyrus scribes use a stylus as a pencil. We know what there writing by other people living in Egypt today. Americans go to Egypt and studying them to discover new stories.

The egyptian alphabet

Scribes writing on stone

Writing tools