1-2.99 Magnitude Earthquakes
This magnitude range includes micro to minor earthquakes (typically not felt) up until about the 2.5 range and there is no casualties under this range.
From there the earthquakes can be felt and damage some buildings, which can led to objects falling on people and killing them.
There's not a lot of data about these "micro earthquakes" because they are typically recorded on seismographs.
An earthquake that falls into this category is the 2.5 magnitude earthquake of Cave City, Arkansas.
I couldn't find a picture for the damage that this quake caused or any others but I have the location of the earthquake. I also couldn't find any information on the aftereffects.
3-4.99 Magnitude Earthquakes
Between the magnitudes of 3 and 3.99 the earthquakes are considered minor and can hardly be felt with no casualties. Between the magnitudes of 4 and 4.99 the earthquakes are considered light and can be felt by most people in the area with no casualties.
The damage you should expect is light to heavy toppled over objects, some damage to buildings, and rattling noises.
There is a big range of data on these size earthquakes considering they can actually be felt by most people and occur frequently.
For 3-3.99 magnitude earthquakes you can expect to see about 100,000 annually and about 10,000-15,000 4-4.99 magnitude earthquakes annually.
Some aftereffects of the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma earthquake were tremors in the surrounding area.
5-6.99 Magnitude Earthquake
5-5.99 magnitude earthquakes are considered moderate and the damage is severe to poorly constructed buildings and doesn't do much damage to other buildings. They cause few to no casualties to people. 6-6.99 magnitude earthquakes are considered strong and the damage is pretty much the same as 5-5.99 but causes more damage to well built structures. These can cause anywhere from 0 to 25,000 deaths.
There's a big range of data for the these earthquakes considering how popular it is to discuss them for their size and the fact that they occur often. Information on them can easily be found in multiple books, media sources, and files and pages on the internet.
5-5.99 magnitude earthquakes occur at about a rate of 1,000-1,500 annually. 6-6.99 magnitude earthquakes occur at about a rate of 100-150 annually.
In the picture below the road was cracked for quite a long distance which could be a safety hazard if it were to split open further.
The 6.5 magnitude earthquake of New Zealand was followed by a series of aftershocks and luckily no one was killed.
7-8.99 Magnitude Earthquakes
7-7.99 magnitude earthquakes are going to be considered major and the 8-8.99 magnitude earthquakes are going to be considered great.
Within the 7-7.99 magnitude earthquakes mostly all buildings are going to be damaged if not destroyed and the death toll can range from 0 to 250,000 people. Within the 8-8.99 magnitude earthquake range major damage will be done to all buildings and moderate to heavy damage to earthquake resistant buildings. The death toll will range from 1,000 to 1,000,000 people.
There's not a whole lot of data about this range of earthquakes because of how little they occur. For 7-7.99 magnitude earthquakes you're getting about 10-20 annually. For 8-8.99 magnitude earthquakes you're getting about 1 a year.
In the picture below, you can see a house that had been hit in Hawaii by a tsunami from the Alaskan earthquake. The tsunami destroyed many houses and moved a few but didn't cause any casualties.
The aftereffect of the 8.3 magnitude earthquake in Alaska was the tsunami it caused.
(P.S. Sorry for the bad quality of the pictures, it was in 1957)
9 and↑ Magnitude Earthquakes
This range of earthquakes is going to be considered great and it is going to cause near to TOTAL destruction which means very severe damage to all buildings if not collapsed. The death toll for this range of earthquakes is going to usually be 50,000 +.
There's not a lot of data for these sized earthquakes.
They generally occur about every 10 to 50 years.
The damage caused by the 2011 9 magnitude earthquake of Japan was destroyed buildings, radiation release, flooding and fires. The death toll was 15,889 with 2,601 missing.
The aftereffects were tsunamis and over a thousand aftershocks ranging from a magnitude of 4 to 7.9.