Here are three aspects of Mesopotamia that made it advance.
1. The first thing that made Mesopotamia advance is the development of the cities
Mesopotamia had fertile soil, and farming wasn't easy there.This meant that the water levels in the Tigris and Euphrates river depended on how much rain had fallen in the eastern Asia minor where the two river begin. When the water got high it caused flooding, and destroyed crops, and killed their livestock. It sometimes washed away peoples homes. When the farmers knew the water levels got low it dried up their crops, so they needed to find a way to control the rivers flow. So they used irrigation. To irrigate their land they dug out canals; it was like a human-made water way that connected the basis to make ditches. The ditches brought the water to the fields so they could fertilize their crops. also to make their fields from flooding, farmer build up a bank to hold the flood-waters when the river banks got high.
2. The second thing that made Mesopotamia advance is the infrastructure.
Hunter-gather groups first settled in Mesopotamia more that 12,000 years ago. Overtime the people learned how to plant crops, and grow their own food. Every year it floods in the Tigris and the Euphrates river. It brought silt, which is a mixture of rich soil and any thing that could come up on the land. The fertile silt made the land much easier for farming. The first form settlements formed in Mesopotamia as early as 7000 BC. Farmer grew wheat, barley, and other types of grain. Livestock, birds and fish were also good sources of food. Plenty of food led to population growth, and villages formed. Eventually these early villages developed into world's first civilization.
3. The third thing that made Mesopotamia advance is the system of writing.
The first system of writing is cuneiform. Cuneiform is a system of symbols the Sumerians wrote down on clay tablets. There were also photographs (symbols/picture). Each photograph stands for an object. So if a person wanted to write something down they would have to write it on the clay tablet. Also if a girl or boy wanted to know how to read or write he/she would needed to be teached by his/her partents and not by his/her teacher. Not a lot of girls get to write it's mostly boys that get to be a scribe. Boys properly get to be a scribe more often because they properly have more knowledge and remember the writing better.