Continuity and change in the United States
               By: Samantha Allynn Ash
During 1997 to 2015 many things changed and many things continued. Technology changed which caused a change in culture and economy one of those changes was you tube.Americas role in the world also changed as more conflicts around the world occurred such  america vs. Afghanistan.American politics managed a continuity with the constitution when it came to apprehending the guilty and defending the forsaken.Such as the DOMA act which discriminated against gays was outed by the constitutional idea that all men are created equal and Clinton's impeachment which was a show of congresses constitutional right to impeach and  the value of the peoples votes.Politics managed to maintain a continuity but culture,economics,and Americas role in the world changed during this time showing a stronger change than continuity.

Document A:TV rating system is created

Source: Mr.Josephs blog,January 2013

Intended Audience:Parents and children the rating system for television included what was appropriate for the view of children and adults therefor it was directed towards children and adults making them the audience


This picture shows the meaning of every rating on the television rating system which was created around 1997.This rating system communicated to adults and children especially parents on what kids could watch and what they should not watch this way parents could prevent their kids from seeing gruesome television shows and pornographic content.This was the start of an idea that kids should be better protected and monitored around this time parents let kids watch dangerous things and play dangerous things believing it was only part of growing up so when a rating system comes in saying what is not appropriate maybe parents start to think that it is not right for their kids to play with toy guns or run with a rough crowd.Parents started becoming protective and this was a big change in culture parents became more responsible in caring for their kids being aware that it is their job to protect them from drugs and violence and the rating system helped concrete that fact.Even today there are buttons on remotes to stop a kid from watching something dangerous but this can go a bit far seeing as parents are now protecting their kids from everything including some sports.It just goes to show how big of an impact the television rating system had an american culture.

Document B:Youtube is created

Source: Jawed , April 23, 2005

Purpose:The purpose of this video was to entertain people or inform people of a local park but the main purpose for youtube was to entertain,guide,and inform people of certain subjects through video.


This video shows a young man video taping himself at the park it was the very first you tube video.It may not seem like much but it was the start of a revolutionary evolution in technology.Around this time cell phones existed and you can communicate with people around the world but time was a problem people in different time zones could not communicate with each other because the other may have been asleep while the other was awake.This was also a problem when getting info on something a student in china wants to get info from an expert in america but he does not have the time to call and could not call anyway since the expert would probably be asleep.And what about those who learn best when demonstrated you cant do that over the phone.This is where you tube comes in you could record informational videos,DIY videos videos to your family,and even and videos purely for entertainment.This allowed people from around the world to see the information not just on person.This soon advanced phones being as it was added to cellphones it allowed you to see/hear more than you would calling someone and the instant access to all information helped to progress other things like research that's how you tube effected technology for the better.

Document C:Clintons impeachment

Source:The associated press,February 12

Russell Feingold
Democrat of Wisconsin

With all due respect to historians and constitutional scholars who may know more or feel differently, it is my sense that the case against William Jefferson Clinton is the first close case or "hard" case of presidential impeachment in our nation's long history. This case lies in the middle, between the rather weak case brought to impeach President Andrew Johnson, and the overwhelming series of allegations that would have led to President Nixon's impeachment if he had not resigned. This one is a hard case and senators may see it either way.

The single most salient fact in this case is that on November 5, 1996, over 47 million Americans voted to re-elect William Jefferson Clinton as President of the United States. ...

The people choose their leaders in America, and we must not lightly reverse their will.

Reflection/Politics and power:

This document talks about the impeachment of William Jefferson Clinton and was the first ever impeachment to make it to court.Clinton was brought to court for impeachment on several accounts which had been brought to the attention by many people.All with their different reasoning but one of the main reason was Clinton's scandal relationship with another women.It was believed to be seen as quite a negative thing expressing a negative image on the federal government.This relates to politics and the constitution because within the constitution it states that congress has the power to impeach presidents on due cause such as scandal and Clinton trial was the first real event holding up the constitution giving congress the right to impeach even though it was not very successful.But the quote from Russell Feingold emphasizes another part of the constitution,the people reelected Clinton even after his scandal it showed the people had faith in Clinton and if Clinton had the faith of the people he could'nt be all bad its the constitutions ideal of voting that was showed as a continuity in Feingold quote along with the impeachment ideal that made this showed how this event had an effect on politics in America.

Point of view:

The point of view of this is that Feingold believed in the people and the people re-elected Clinton so he interpreted that as being a reason Clinton should not be impeached his point of view was somewhat on the positive side but he still believed Clinton had done something wrong and should be trialed fairly.

Document D: Obama's speech to the allied troops at the Afghanistan

Source: The CNN wire staff March 28,2010

Audience:The audience of Obama's speech is the allied Afghanistan troops and the american troops stationed in an Afghanistan base.

President Obama rallied U.S. troops and pledged continued partnership with Afghanistan during a previously unannounced trip to the country Sunday.

Speaking to about 2,000 U.S. and allied troops at the major U.S. base in Afghanistan, Obama said, "Those folks back home are relying on you."

Reflection/America in the world:

This is part of Obamas speech to the allied forces in Afghanistan.His speech was meant to encourage them to be strong and tell them about Americas action plan.Around February of 2010 America had set forth a plan to stop the Afghanistan war and terrorists.This was because of the terrorist bombing of 9/11.This marked a change in Americas role in the world.Once America was a neutral country but many years of bad relationships and now America has to make plans for war.America has gone head first into the affairs of Afghanistan which is a major change in their role with the world.

Document E: Osama Bin Laden is killed trucker hat/artifact

Source: Zazzle 5/5/11

Audience:The audience of this Osama Bin Laden is dead trucker hat is the american people because it was their victory against him and this hat was made to commemorate that victory.


This trucker hat that says 5/1/11 justice day is about the killing of Osama Bin Laden. Osama was the leader of a terrorist organization believed to be responsible for  the 9/11 bombing and other such attacks on america therefor he ended up being on Americas most wanted list.Americans planned on killing Osama and preventing future terrorist attacks but Osama kept himself well hidden and it wasnt until 5/1/11 that American soldiers were able to find and kill Osama. People reffered to this day as justice day because it was the day we finally got justice for those Osama killed.The fact that they would put this message on a trucker hat shows a great change in American culture before this people did not really put things like the revolutionary war on hats this showed a great change on American culture and the ways they show support for their nation.

Document F: DOMA act of same sex marriage is declared unconstitutional

Source: Adam Liptak June 26,2013

WASHINGTON — In a pair of major victories for the gay rights movement, the Supreme Court on Wednesday ruled that married same-sex couples were entitled to federal benefits and, by declining to decide a case from California, effectively allowed same-sex marriages there.

The rulings leave in place laws banning same-sex marriage around the nation, and the court declined to say whether there was a constitutional right to such unions. But in clearing the way for same-sex marriage in California, the nation’s most populous state, the court effectively increased to 13 the number of states that allow it.

Purpose: The purpose of this newspaper article was to inform the people of congress's decision against the DOMA same sex marriage act.

Reflection/Politics and power:

This news article from the newyork times is talking about congress's decision that DOMA is unconstitutional.The DOMA same sex marriage act was created to prevent same sex marriage people from getting the same benefits as opposite sex marriages.For years this had seem unfair as states were allowing gay marriage, the federal DOMA act was continuing to treat gay marriage differently.The problem became apparent when a women was denied money for her partner who had died so she took the case to federal court.Several officials recognized this as a problem during that trial but where unable to go against it until 2013.This problem expressed a continuity in politics and power because in the constitution it states that all men are created equal by bringing this topic up and claiming that it is unconstitutional shows a continuity of holding up the idea set forth by the constitution.

Document G:The Urkraine rebellion/one day

Source: Matisayahu February 2,2014

Audience: The audience of the song are people who are drowning in there sorrow and fighting for their freedom from this oppression which relates to the Urkraine rebellion which was  about Urkraine fighting against their president because the president wants to ally with Russia and Urkraine does not want to do that .


The Urkraine rebellion started in February.What happened was the Urkraine president wanted to get help from russia and the urkraine citizens did not want that because Russia had long oppressed urkraine so the urkrainians do not want it to happen again.Around February a song called one day was released the song was about how you can be drowning in sorrow and the negativity of life and about being oppressed but never giving up which is like the reason urkraine is rebelling. Urkraine had been drowning and oppressed by Russia but now that they git through that they do not want it to happen again so they are still fighting.This has to do with a continuity in culture because protesting for your rights has been going on for a long time and song about fighting for your freedom have been going on just as long so the culture of standing up for yourself is still going on.

Document H:  Obamas executive action on immigration is blocked

Source: Stephen Frank February 26, 2015

Point of view:

The point of view of this cartoon is that Obama's decision on immigration would be like putting a welcome mat up for every immigrant to get in which would be a bad thing so this person was probably a republican.

Reflection/politics and power:

This political cartoon illustrates Obama's executive action on immigration.Obama wanted to make it so immigrants were not imported out of the united states,his main focus were young immigrants in the united states he believed that they all deserved to be here.Some people believed that this would make it seem that all immigrants are allowed to stay/come to the united states.Obama claimed that immigrants had a constitutional right to be in the united states that is why it depicts Obama using the constitution as a welcome mat because it was he was using the constitution to defend immigrants right to be in the united states.This shows how some might believe the constitution is being bended to the will of the higher ups.

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