Lymphatic System

Lymph- serves to defend against infection, maintain fluid balance, and remove waste products. clear watery fluid consists of water, waste product, digested nutrients, hormones, salts, and lymphocytes.

Lymphatic Duct- lymph empties here. walled passageways, then empty into superior vena cava, and the lymph joins the blood as it enters the right atrium.

Lymph Nodes- Remove substances, such as cancer cells, disease causing organisms and dead blood cells in the blood.

Spleen- Filters blood instead of lymph fluid and is located in the upper left area of the abdomen.

Immune Response- Occurs when something enters the body that it doesn't identify its own tissue.

Antigens- Foreign substances in the body.

Diseases & Disorders

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome- caused by a virus and results in failure of the body’s immune system.

Hodgkin's- form of cancer that affects the lymph nodes

Tonsillitis- Inflammation of the tonsils

Preventive Measures

Good Nutrition


Treat cuts correctly to prevent infection

Practice Safe Sex

Age Related Changes

  • Decreased
    • Inflammatory response
    • effectiveness of vaccines
  • Increased
    • Susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections

Endocrine System

Endocrine System- Consists of glands that manufacture hormones.

Hormone- Chemical substance secreted by a gland in one part of the body that travels via the bloodstream to direct changes in the activities of other organ systems.

Exocrine- Glands that produce liquids that flow through a duct to reach a body cavity or the surface of the skin.

Feedback Mechanism- Determines if there is enough of a hormone circulating through the blood.

Preventive Measures

  • maintain healthy weight
  • avoid excessive refined sugars
  • take children for checkups to monitor growth and development
  • Avoid the use of steroids unless prescribed

adrenal glands:

  • addison’s disease- Inadequate hormone production by the adrenal cortex
  • cushing’s syndrome- Same as addison’s disease and results in distribution


  • diabetes mellitus- Caused by inadequate insulin production

Parathyroid glands:

  • hyperparathyroidism- Caused by excessive parathormone that results in an increased calcium blood levels
  • hypoparathyroidism- Caused by inadequate parathormone that results in decreased calcium blood levels

pituitary glands:

  • acromegaly- Enlargement of extremities
  • diabetes- the body doesn’t properly process glucose

Thyroid glands:

  • hyperthyroidism- nervousness, increased HR, weight loss and irritability
  • hypothyroidism- obesity, lethargy, decreased HR, thinning of hair

Age Related Changes

decreased: thyroid gland function, basal metabolic rate, adrenal gland function, insulin release, ability to break down glucose to provide energy for the body.

increased: incidence of hyperglycemia with ingestion of sugars.

Female Reproductive

  • ovaries-produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
  • fallopian tubes-arise from the upper portion of the uterus and end in finger-like projections.
  • uterus-muscular,hollow organ located behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum.
  • vagina-opening that connects the outside of the body to the uterus.
  • labia majora-large fleshy folds of fat tissue that surround and protect the opening of the external female genitalia.
  • labia minora-smaller fleshy folds that lay inside the boundaries of the labia majora for further protection.
  • clitoris-located at the top junction of the labia minora.
  • bartholin’s gland-located on each side of the external opening of the vagina.

Major Diseases and Disorders

menstrual disorders- result from hormonal imbalances, structural deformities, excessive exercise or stress, and nutritional imbalances.

ectopic pregnancy- when the fertilized ovum becomes implanted outside the uterus.

endometriosis- growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.

fibroid tumors- tumors in the uterus.

pelvic inflammatory disease- an inflammation of all the pelvic reproductive organs and causes scarring of the fallopian tubes.

premenstrual syndrome- variety of symptoms that occur prior to the beginning of bleeding.

sexually transmitted disease- venereal disease is a general term that refers to any disease transmitted through sexual contact.

vaginitis- nonspecific infection of the vagina.

Preventive Measures

practice safe sex

use good toilet hygiene

if menstrual irregularities occur or pms is severe, have your health care provider perform an evaluation.

if using contraception, be informed about the effectiveness of the method and any potential complications

do not routinely perform douches.

consult a healthcare provider if sexual intercourse is painful or uncomfortable.

do monthly self-examination of the breasts.

have pap smears and breast examinations at the age and frequency recommended by your healthcare provider.


testes-two testes are encased in a sac-like structure known as the scrotum and manufacture sperm.

seminal vesicles- join at the final portion of the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct.

prostate gland-secretes an alkaline fluid into the ejaculatory duct to aid in the movement of sperm and neutralize the acidity of the vagina.

penis- composed of erectile tissue that when aroused fills with blood and becomes erect.

urethra- connects to the urinary bladder, passes through the penis, and exists at the end of the penis through an external opening called the meatus.

cowpers- produces a thick, white, alkaline secretion to lubricate the urethra and decreases the acidity of urine residue in the urethra.

Major Diseases

epididymitis-inflammation of the epididymis.

prostatic hypertrophy-enlargement of the prostate that causes symptoms as a result of pressing on the urethra.

orchitis-inflammation of the testes.

phimosis- tightness of the foreskin over the end of the penis

sexually transmitted disease-secretion under female reproductive diseases and disorders.

Preventive Measures

practice safe sex

use good toilet hygiene

male contraceptive methods may become more common in the future.

if a decrease in libidoor ability to obtain an erection develops, discuss this with the healthcare providers.

consult a healthcare professional if organism or urination is uncomfortable or painful.

report any lumps or irregularities

have prostate examinations performed at the age and frequency recommended by your healthcare provider.

report any discharge from the urethra, and any sores or growths on the genitalia.

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