Chemical bonds

 What is chemical bonding? Chemical bonding is a mutual attraction between the nuclei and the valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms together. Individual atoms have relatively high potential energy, which is lowered by bonding. Nature favors low potential energy because it is more stable. There are three major types of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent and metallic.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds are made up of cations and anions that are combined so the number of positive and negative charges are equal. This type of bond forms crystalline solids, and this type of bond cannot isolate individual bonds. Characteristics of ionic bonds are: dissolves in water, has high melting point, is not conductive as a solid , but it is conductive as a liquid.  

Metallic Bonds

Metallic bonds result from the attraction of metal atoms that are delocalized and the surrounding sea of electrons. Because of semi-vacant d and p orbitals, they allow overlap and electron roaming. Characteristics of metallic bonds are: it has a high electrical and thermal conductivity, it's shiny, malleable, ductile, and heat of evaporation measures bond strength.

Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonds are made up of nonmetal atoms. Characteristics of covalent bonds are: strong bond strength, melts at a low temperature, is either a gas or liquid at room temperature, it's soft, and never conducts electricity.

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