The Muslim Empire.
"The Golden age of Islam."
The Muslim empire lasted around 800 years after starting around 622 AD by Muhammad, the Islamic prophet, when the religion of Islam began to be spread by conquests and conversions.
Out of Mecca, East of India, West across North Africa and on into Spain. This was the progression of the Muslims as they expanded their empire over a hundred years. As the Muslims continued spreading their empire up through Spain their upward progression was eventually stopped at the Battle of Tours by the French Christians under the leadership of Charles Martel. This win by the french-christians was very impressive due to the fact that Islamic fighters fought fiercly knowing that in their religion if they died during a holy battle that they would be delivered directly to heaven.
The Muslim empire contributed many things to our society through the spreading,adding onto, and creating many ideas. The Muslims even preserved and improved upon Greek and roman ideas, which they got from the Byzantines .
Mathematics. The Muslims traveled to India and through trade absorbed and spread the Gupta's ideas of the zero, the decimal system and there numeral system which today is now called Arabic numerals because of how the Muslim empire spread it. The Muslims added onto this ideas of mathematics though and they ended up creating algebra and trigonometry. Medicine. The Muslims were very advance in their medical practices. They created the idea of hospitals wrote textbooks and even made it so that doctors had to be qualified and pass exams to practice medicine. Astronomy. The idea of studying the stars started with the Greeks and their ideas but the Muslims added onto these ideas and ended up creating astronomical tables. Banking. This idea was started by the Muslims and also helped create the idea of credit or money borrowing. Islamic Law. The political laws of the Muslim empire were largely based off of the Islamic religious laws of the Qur'an.