Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin
Madeline, Kylen, Noah
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin separates cotton fiber from the seeds, a process that was formerly done by slaves. This became immensely popular because it allowed farmers to get money from the cotton they were growing faster. Whitney was then hired by the government to make muskets because of his new found fame. During this time, he promoted the idea of interchangeable parts. This idea is sometimes attributed to him, but he did not actually invent them. These interchangeable parts made it easier for muskets to be cleaned and be put together. His cotton gin, while increasing productivity, also fostered a separation of focus in the United States, called sectional specialization. The south focused on agricultural exports, aided by the cotton gin. The North was more focused on manufacturing, and the West was for exploration.
This is the cotton gin. The cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into clothing or other cotton goods, and any undamaged seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil and meal.
This political cartoon represents the American System and Henry Clay's disdain for it. One part of the American System was taxes that would hurt the southern states. During the period of sectional specialization, the North and South halves of the country did not support one another very much, anyway, so this just added to the problem. The American System added to the already present sectional specialization's negative effects was going to be the country's downfall, according to Henry Clay, because it led to a deep difference in values and culture between the North and the South and also because it was hurting both halves because they would not help each other out.
Sectional specialization was mainly caused by the Industrial Revolution and the many inventions that were made during that time. Inventions such as the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts of muskets all lead to the specialization of regions within the nation, particularly in the North and South. The specialization of these regions would deepen over time because the halves developed their cultures and economies separately, eventually leading to the Civil War.