Civil Rights Map
By Gorge Ross
1954: Brown vs. Board of Education
a. This was a Supreme Court case, in which the Court declared that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
b. Oliver Brown and the Topeka Board of Education were involved.
c. The nation opened more educational opportunities for black people.
1954-1956: Boycott of Segregated Bus System
a. This is where African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama.
b. African Americans, such as Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, and the U.S. Supreme Court were involved.
c. The Supreme Court ordered Montgomery to integrate its bus system, and Martin Luther King became a national Civil Rights leader.
1957: Integration of Central High School
a. The U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division escorted nine black students to the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
b. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, National Guard, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army's 101st Airborne Division, and the nine students.
c. This shed some light on the stupid accusations white people had on black people however, there were still white people that opposed the desegregation in Arkansas, including the governor.
1960: First Lunch-Counter Sit-In
a. These sit-ins were nonviolent protests.
b. African American protestors and white people that opposed them and store owners.
c. The sit-ins led to the removing of the racial segregation policy of the Woolworth department store chain, and led to and increased national sentiment.
1961: Blacks Sit in White Section at a Bus Station
a. Thirteen African American and white civil rights activists started Freedom Rides, which were a series of bus trips through American South Bus Terminals.
b. The 13 activists, the southern american society, and the government were involved.
c. Overtime, hundreds of freedom riders emerged and did similar actions which eventually led to the Interstate Commerce Commision prohibited segregation in bus and train stations.
1962: Integration of the University of Mississippi
a. An African American, James Meredith, attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss).
b. James, the students, and authorities.
c. With a riot breaking out and two people being killed with hundreds injured, many people took time to look at what caused the riots and realized it wasn't worth what was lost.
1963: Murder of NAACP Leader Medgar Evers
a. Medgar was assassinated by a White Citizen's Council member, but was buried with full military honors due to him being a veteran.
b. Medgar and Byron De La Beckwith (White Citizen's Council member).
c. Medgar's death resulted in many civil rights protests, art works, songs, and movies.
1963: Four Girls Killed in Church Bombing
a. A bomb exploded before the Sunday morning service at the Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama.
b. The Birmingham community, the three girls, and their families.
c. Led to violent protest disputes between police and protesters.
1963: March on Washington: "I have a dream" Speech
a. More than 200,000 Americans gathered in Washington D.C., to shed light on political and social challenges that African Americans face throughout the country.
b. 200,000 people, civil rights activists, Martin Luther King, and the government were involved.
c. This was a spirited call for racial justice and equality for African Americans and this was where Martin Luther King gave his "I have a dream" speech.
1964: Murder of 3 Civil Rights Workers
a. James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael "Mickey" Schwerner were abducted then shot at close range by the KKK in Neshoba County, Mississippi.
b. These three men, the KKK, and authorities were involved in this tragic yet memorable event.
c. These murders sparked a national outrage and a federal investigation.
1965: March for Voting Rights to Montgomery
a. This was a march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama which was run by Martin Luther King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference, to register black voters in the south.
b. Martin Luther King, members of the SCLC, and the people that supported and opposed to blacks being able to vote.
c. The Voting Rights Act was passed later that year due to historical three day march that allowed the protesters to reach their goals, to give blacks the right to vote.
1968: Murder of Martin Luther King Jr.
a. Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed while standing on the balcony outside his second story room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
b. Martin Luther King Jr., the authorities, and James Earl Ray.
c. Due to Martin Luther King Jr. being a popular icon, his death was mourned by more than just his family, but by the nation.