Sometimes we call them 'if clauses'. They describe the result of something that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn't (in the past) . They are made using different English verb tenses.
- If I run too fast, I get tired more faster
- If you steal money, you are a criminal
- If you get more close to the fire, you can get burn
- If you don't study, you don't pass the exam
- If you miss the bus, you are be late
This conditional is used when the result will always happen.
The result of the 'if clause' is always the main cluase. The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning.
The first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the future simple in the other clause
It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily come true.
- If you feel sick, you must stay in bed
- If you don't have enough sleep, you might be tired in the morning
- If you break the lamp, you should say it
- If I miss the exam, I will fail the class
- If you undestand the topic, you could help me
The second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the infinitive
First, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be true.
Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible, because it's not true.
- I if didn't have to go to school today, I could go out with you
- If it weren't raining, we could go to the pool
- If I went to New York, I would see the Empire State
- If she read the book, she would like it
- If I had more money, I would buy a car
We make the third conditional by using the past perfect after 'if' and then 'would have' and the past participle in the second part of the sentence
It talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of this situation.
- If I had studied more, I could have passed the exam
- If I had won the lottery, I would have traveled around teh world
- If I had seen you, I would have told you something
- If you had invited him, he would have been here
- If I hadn't forgotten to do the homework, I would have done it