Electron Configuration: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3s6, 4s2, 3d3
Ion charge: +2/3/4/5
Ion common forms: V2+, V3+, VO+, VO2+
History: Discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in Paris, France. Rediscovered by Gabriel Sefstrôm in Sweden by studying iron ore samples. Vanadium is obtained from the minerals vanadinite (Pb5(VO)3Cl) and carnotite (K2(UO2)2VO41-3H2O) by heating crushed ore in the with of carbon and chlorine to produce vanadium trichloride. The vanadium trichloride is then heated with magnesium in an argon atmosphere.
Uses: Bond titanium to steel or to create ferrovanadium. Also Vanadium is used for treating diabetes, low blood sugar, high cholesterol, heart disease, tuberculosis, syphilis and preventing cancer.
Extra: Found only in chemically combined form in nature. $2.20 per gram.