By: Tomekia W.


Waxing Moon - the moon at anytime after new moon and before fullmoon

Waning Moon - the moon at any time after fullmoon and before new moon.

Gibbous Moon - the moon is seen with more than half but not all of the apparent disk illuminated.

Crescent Moon - the moon part way between a half moon and a new moon, or between a new moon and a half moon.

When you have a waxing moon the patterns you see are it looks like the moon might have different appearances. But one thing that will not be affected will be your sleep. When you have a waning moon the relative positions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth appear changes in the Moon's shape are simply changes in the portion of the lit side of the Moon that you can see from Earth.

A Lunar Cycle is almost the same thing as a metonic cycle which is after which the new and full moons return to the same days of the year. The average lunar cycle lasts about 29.5 days.

Earth's Seasons/Eclipses

Nicolai Copernicus : radically changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the sun, not Earth, was the center of the solar system. This led to our modern understanding of the relationship between the sun and Earth.

Why do we have seasons ? the earth is tilted as it makes its yearly journey around the sun.

The sun is close to the earth during winter but it is still cold because the North Pole is tilted toward the sun and the Northern Hemisphere is starting to enjoy summer in other words the sun's rays are concentrated over a smaller surface area.'

An eclipse is when the moon covers/blocks out the sun so it becaomes dark. The moon phases are just when the moon is at different places and angles in the sky.

We have day and night because when the earth rotates on the axis it is moving away from the sun so you do not get any sun at certain points and that is night time.

Equinox : the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth.

Solstice : either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator.



Alfred Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist. During his lifetime he was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research.

Convergent : A tectonic boundary where two plates are movingtoward each other.

Divergent: A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other.

Transform boundaries: are places where plates slide sideways past each other.

Juan De Fuca is just off the coast of Washington.

When the plates shift the earth is going together and forming to ridges and mountains so thats how the cascades were made.

Currents play a role in plate tectonics because Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics.

Rift zone: is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of fissures in the volcanic edifice allows lava to be erupted from the volcano's flank instead of from its summit.

Subduction zone: are sites of high rates of volcanism, earthquakes, and mountain building.

Channel Scablands: are a barren, relatively soil-free landscape in eastern Washington, scoured clean by a flood unleashed when a large glacial lake drained.


Sedimentary : are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

Example : limestone.

Metamorphic : is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock.

Example : quartzite.

Igneous : is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Example : granite.

Stratification : is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories and  is used to describe a particular way of arranging seeds while planting, as well as the geological layers of rocks.

The amount of layers a rock has significates the age of the rock because as the object gets older the more layers or rings the rock will get.

I think the reason the new sedimentary rock grows over the old is because when all the weathering is done occuring the new rock is fresh on top because the eroding is done the new rock that has been formed to the old has more layers now.

Coral reefs are not only spectacular marine environments, but they are one of the oldest ecosystems (community of plants and animals interacting with their environment) on Earth. They are created by colonies of organisms called coral polyps (pronounced PAH-lips).


Cell : the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

The difference is that plant cells have an organelle called chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called chlorophyll (which gives the plant its green color). another difference is in the structure of the cell itself. Animal cells are smaller than plant cells and have a membrane around them that is flexible and allows molecules, gases and nutrients to pass into the cell. Plant cells are larger and in addition to a membrane they have a rigid cell wall.

Plant Cell

Cell wall : a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.

Chloroplasts : a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.

Vacuoles : a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.


muscle : a band or bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body.

Nerve : a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs

Bone : the hard connective tissue forming the substance of the skeleton of most vertebrates, composed of a collagen-rich organic matrix impregnated with calcium, phosphate, and other minerals.

When the tissues work together they help keep the blood flow in the body that keep us alive and the organs keep it pumping to the places it needs to go so we stay alive.

Digestive : responsible for getting food into and out of the body and for making use of food to keep the body healthy. The digestive system includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, colon, and rectum.

Circulatory : the system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands.

Respiratory : the system of organs in the body responsible for the intake of oxygen and the expiration of carbon dioxide.