The climate in Ancient Egypt was very dry and hot. The Egyptians farmed and irrigated land near the Nile River. The river was used for fishing, drinking, cooking and bathing. Once a year the Nile River floods the grasses which brings in rich soil for planting and growing.
Stable Food Supply
The ancient Egyptians had a very stable food supply. The Nile River was an example because they used it for food, drinking, and, bathing. Water, lakes,rivers, and inland seas helped the Egyptians out with keeping a stable food supply. Important environmental factors water, topography, and vegetation. They sometimes ate fish, water birds, and some other animals. They used irrigation systems to keep the fields of crops to not flood. Farmers were successful because they used irrigation systems, they dug canals, or trenches, to direct river water to crops. Water was also used for transportation, cities, and towns, often used rivers as highways. Additionally, they ate ducks, geese, hippos, crocodiles, giraffes, and ostriches. The farmers grew crops, plants, wheat, and grains. The Egyptians had domesticated animals like; sheep, goats, cattle, donkeys, and camels. They feed the animals plants and grass.
Pharaohs were the most powerful people besides the gods and goddesses in ancient Egypt. King Tut was once a very powerful pharaoh. The government was controlled by pharaohs. Khufu, Senusret, Hatsheput, and Ramses II, were four of some of the most powerful and successful pharaohs that ruled ancient Egypt. The "social pyramid" consists of (in order of most powerful to least powerful) pharaohs, government officials, priests, scribes, artisans, and peasants/ slaves. Children in ancient Egypt were highly valued. Men were the head of the household and the women managed homes and raised their children. Women could land and run businesses, file for divorces and represent themselves in legal matters. Also, some women could work as doctors, government officials, or priestesses.
The ancient Egyptians believed that there were many gods and goddesses. Some gods and goddesses took part in creation, brought the flood every year, offered protection, and some took care of other people after they died. Other gods and goddesses were worshiped by the pharaohs and priests in large temples. The ancient Egyptians built temples to honor their gods. They worshiped Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Horus, and many more gods and goddesses. It was important that you worshiped the gods Ra, Osiris, Anubis, and Horus because they believed that Osiris gave them the gift of barley and crops. Ra was believed to be swallowed by the sky goddesses Nut every night and reborn every morning. Anubis watched over the dead, was the god of embalming, and watched over the process of mummifying people when they died. Horus was the god of the sky. The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and it affected their life and death by thinking because Anubis would put your soul on one side of a giant scale and he would put a feather on the other side, then Thoth would decide where you should go. The more bad things you've done in your life, the heavier your soul will be. If it was heavier than the feather, you would go to a bad place and if it was lighter than the feather, you would go to a good place. It was important to the Egyptians because that was what they believed in and sometimes affected their way of life.
System of Government
Pharaohs were the highest in the social pyramid and ruled over the people. Pharaohs made the laws and rules. They also owned all of Egypt, everything in it, all the land, all of the tools, all the animals, and all the people. He or she could tell anybody to do something and they had to do it. The form of government they had was monarchy. King Tut and Ramses were two powerful pharaohs. Khufu was a pharaoh from about 2551 to 2528 B.C.E. He was best known as the builder of a famous pyramid. He was responsible for the building of the Great Pyramid at Giza, It had more than 2 million stone blocks, tunnels, and several burial chambers. It was very complex. It took about 20 years to build. He organized and fed thousands of workers. Senusret was a pharaoh from about 1971 to 1926 B.C.E. The arts thrived under his rule. He controlled mines filled with gold, copper, and gems. Bracelets and necklaces were often detailed. He had many shrines, temples, and religious monuments. Senusret's first architectural achievement was the White Chapel. He also wanted his memories to live through his monuments. Hatsheput was a pharaoh from about 1473 to 1458 B.C.E. She was the first female pharaoh. Known for encouraging trade. One of her biggest accomplishments was her rise in power. She filled her government with loyal advisers. Sometimes she wore male clothing. Sometimes she would wear a fake beard worn by males. She also spread stories that her father was a god. She promoted trade to other countries. Ramses II was a pharaoh that ruled from about 1290 to 1224 B.C.E. He ruled for about 60 years. He is best known for his military leadership and for building numerous monuments. He used his power to excess. He had more than 100 wives and more than 100 children. He had hundreds of statues of himself throughout Egypt. Ramses was made a captain in the Egyptian army. His most famous military campaigns were against the Hittites Empire in Anatolia. He was also a great peacemaker because he and the Hittites signed the world's first peace treaty. One of his greatest projects was the temple complex at Abu Simbel. The cliff was on a bank of the Nile River. A smaller temple honored his favorite wife Nefertiti. When Ramses died, he was buried in a tomb that he ordered workers to construct solely for him. His mummy is one of the best preserved bodies ever found.
Ancient Egyptian art was mostly found in tombs, walls of tombs, or either the pyramids of pharaohs, or the tombs of less important men and women during the Old Kingdom of Egypt. The arts included paintings, hieroglyphics, sculptures, and many more things. Amarna art shows people in very dramatic and exaggerated ways. Music was a part of the arts too. The Egyptians most likely had stringed instruments like guitars and harps. They also had wind instruments like recorders, clarinets, and bronze trumpets. Lastly they had percussion instruments like drums and rattles. They made pottery and some had designs like people, boats, and animals. They made life-size stone sculptures and made them sitting down because it was easier to carve. Some of these were put in people's tombs after they died because statues were sort of like a replacement body for people that died to use in the afterlife. They devoted lots of energy to building big buildings. The pharaohs built the pyramids as tombs for themselves.
Advances in Technology
Pyramids were used as tombs and places of worship and it also made more jobs for people to do like building and sculpting. They invented the waterwheel too. The ancient Egyptians used shoes to protect their feet from sharp or dangerous things and shoes were better for working. They came up with the calender and that made their lives easier because they could keep track of the days and know when events were going to happen. The Egyptians found and made medicine which could help or make a person feel better and possibly live longer. People invented new ways of writing and it made their lives easier because the people could know what's going on and what other people want to tell them. The ancient Egyptians were very intelligent.
The ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics are drawings of familiar objects, simplified to make them easier to draw. When they began to write in about 3000 B.C., they wrote from the beginning in ink on papyrus. Papyrus is a plant that grows wild over the Nile River Valley. In the end the papyrus looks something like paper. Hieroglyphic writing had over 1,000 symbols. Some hieroglyphs represented sounds, like our letters, and other represented whole words. They used clay tablets to write on. Today in modern times, we know how to translate hieroglyphs from the Rosetta Stone.
Ancient Egypt was a very fascinating breathtaking place from what we've heard. The ancient Egyptian people were very intelligent and creative.