Bibliographies - Secondary

A Bibliography is a list of resources used for research for a paper or project.

For Secondary Learners

Why should you include a bibliography?

1. It gives credit to the original creator or author.

When you cite your resources and create a bibliography, you inform your audience where you got the information. It helps you to avoid plagiarism (claiming the work of someone else as your own; cheating). It also help convince people to take your work and research seriously. It says "Hey, I did research about this, and the information is credible!"

2. It also allows others to find your sources themselves.

Sometimes your paper or project is so compelling others what to continue researching the information. Your bibliography provides the path so others may find your sources themselves. When creating the bibliography use the format asked by your teacher. Bibliography formats (such as MLA and APA) help avoid confusion if there are resources (websites or books) with similar names or authors.

Books as resources!

Books are great resources for resource. They provide information that is usually well researched and carefully crafted. Books are able to share a narrative. Books are a great resource when looking to find a fuller picture or narrative about your subject. They go through a much more rigorous process to get published than many websites.

However, be careful. Books cannot be updated like a website can, so some information may be out of date.

To cite a book for a bibliography look for Title, Author, Publisher (with city), and Copyright Date.

Use to help create your citation

Marcus, Leonard S. Show Me a Story!: Why Picture Books Matter : Conversations with 21 of the World's Most Celebrated Illustrators. Somerville, MA: Candlewick, 2012.

Websites as resources!

Websites are also great resources for research! Websites provide information in a concise (or to the point) manner, often making it easier to navigate or read than some books. In addition, it is relatively easy to update a website, so the information is often accurate and up to date. However, be careful! Websites do not always meet as much scrutiny to get published. Make sure that the website you are using is up to date and from a respected source.

When citing a website for a bibliography look for the web address, the host site, the article name (if applicable), the author (if possible), and the date (if possible). Sometimes this information is difficult to find on a website, but do your best. Also include the date you accessed (or used) the website yourself.

"Introductory Tutorial." EasyBib. N.p., 2013. Web. 29 Dec. 2013. <>.

Databases as Resources

In addition to their reliability, databases are conveniently designed for research.

  • You are able to search within a database or the through the text itself.
  • They often provide links within the text for further exploration.
  • Best of all: COMES WITH A CITATION! Many databases include their citation (usually in APA, MLA, and Chicago) at the bottom of the resource or under a citation tools tab.

Many databases require a subscription.  Visit the library for information about how to access your school's databases.

Bibliography Tutorial