By: Sanjeev Penupala & Ryan Gordon
How did strategy affect the outcome of the Crusades?
Time Period: 1096-1204
The first sightings of the Crusades started when Nobles and peasants marched from Europe to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The Crusaders began a 5-week siege on Constantinople, in which Constantinople fell. Crusaders took over most of the Mediterranean coast and built numerous fortified castles across the Holy Land. They also built churches, next to their castles, that were loyal Rome. In the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 15 cathedral churches were established. The Second Crusades was started by a man named Bernard of Clairvaux. His goal was to take over Damascus in Syria. This failed because the Muslims regrouped together under Saladin. Muslim forces traversed across Syria and took Jerusalem on October 1187.
In 1169 Saladin becomes ruler of Egypt in the name of Nur-al-Din. In 1187 he takes out the entire army of the kingdom of Jerusalem in the battle of Hattin. In the months following he takes the whole of Jerusalem itself. News of the fall is received by the Pope, and Frederick I, Barbarossa, King Philip Augustus, and King Richard answered the call. The leaders proposed a compromise to Saladin, in which Christians were in control of the coast, and were allowed access to the Holy city.
The Later Crusades weren't nearly as successful as the earlier ones. The seventh and eighth crusades were launched in 1248 sponsored by King Louis IX who later died in Tunisia. Calls for new crusades in the next few centuries became increasingly ignored. The latest successful crusade was the fourth in which the relations between the Byzantines and western forces got more tightly wound. The fourth crusades goal was Egypt, the crusaders set out in 1202, but they decided to seize the opportunity. They besieged Constantinople again to collect money that the Byzantines had promised them, in 1204 the city was ran-sacked.
Causes and Effects of the Crusades
CAUSES: The Crusaders were wars between the Christians and Muslims, which was around Jerusalem and Holy places of Palestine. Christian pilgrims In 1065, Jerusalem was taken over by the Turks. 3000 Christians were massacred by the Turks and the others suffered to death. This gave the Christians a reason to fight back for the Holy Land.
EFFECTS: The Crusades had effect on several different things like:
- The Catholic Church
- Intellectual Development
The Catholic Church: The Crusades increased the wealth of the Catholic Church and the power of the Papacy. The Popes were now in charge of the armies and resources and were leaders for the people.
Commerce: There was demand for men across many kingdoms and supplies for wars. This eventually led to the idea of ship-building.
Feudalism: The Crusades eventually eradicated feudalism because barons and knights had to sell their land, so that they could raise enough money for war. With these lands sold, peasants didn't have to work under any barons, knights, or lords.
Intellectual Development: When men started coming back after the Crusades ended, new ideas and inventions were in their minds. Instead of always staying within their kingdom, they developed the idea of tourism. Tourism allowed them to see what other people were like and allowed them to trade ideas. Since they took many expeditions in the East, this opened their minds to new knowledge of science, which helped Western Europe's educational system. The knowing of this new knowledge eventually led to the period of the Renaissance.
Trade: With the creation of new allies from the Crusades, Europe and its allies were able to get unknown resources from each other. Cities like Venice and Pisa were able to trade very often with each other. Sometimes, exports from Asia went all the way to Europe, bringing in different types of art, inventions, manufactured goods, etc. These artifacts are still seen in European museums.
Summary of The Crusades
Summary of Saladin's victory
Essential Question/Critical Thinking Question
How did strategy affect the outcome of the Crusades?
Critical Thinking Question:
Why was Saladin a significant figure in the fate of the crusader states?
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