Metaphors: describe one thing as if it were something else.
Personification: gives human qualities to something nonhuman.
Similes: use like or as to compare two unlike things.
Alliteration: is the repetition of consonant sounds the beginnings of words, as in feathered friend.
Repetition: is the repeated use if a sound, word, or phrase.
Assonance: is the repetition of a vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds, as in fade and hay.
Consonance: is the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds, as in end and hand.
Onomatopoeia: is the is of words that imitate sounds, like Pow!
Rhyme:is the repetition of sounds at the end of words--thin skin.
Rhythm:is the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.

Lines: help poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts.

Stanzas: are the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts.

Meter: is the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Rhyme scheme: is the pattern of rhyme in a poem. it is written in letters; aabb is a stanza whose first two and last two lines rhyme

Lyric poetry: expresses the thoughts and feelings of a of a single speaker, often in very musical verse.

Sonnets: are fourteen-line poems with formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme.

Odes: are poems with a formal tone, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.

Elegies: are formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.

Narrative poetry: tells a story in verse.

Epics: are long narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero.

Ballads: are song-like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.

Free Verse poetry: is defined by its lack of strict structure.

Limericks: are humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an  rhyme scheme.

Concrete Poem: In a concrete poem the words are arranged on the page to form a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem.

Haikus: are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature.