Elements and Principles of Design

By Andrew Nieman

Color- Color has an immediate and profound effect on a design

Point- Most basic element of design
Has position but no dimension

Line (Curved)- Curved lines give the sense of freedom and a soothing mood

Value- Relative lightness or darkness of a color, object, or shape

Texture- The surface look or feel

Balance (Symmetrical)- Visual and physical balance
The distribution of elements within a design or equal spacing of objects

Shape (geometric)- A 2D area enclosed by lines or curves

Form- A 3D volume or solid

Space (crowded)- Evident in images with depth

Emphasis- Used to draw attention to one area

Contrast- The degree of relative difference between elements

Rhythm- Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or pattern

Perspective- The relative size of one object in comparison to another

Unity- The consistent use of design elements

Economy- Use of the bare minimum of elements, In simplicity there is beauty

Gestalt- the principle that the human eye sees object in the entirely before perceiving the individual parts

Symbol- A thing that represents or stands for something

Typography- The style and appearance of printed matter

Graphic Design- the art of combining text and pictures in advertisements

Radial Symmetry - Symmetry about a central axis