America, in The Making

The Treaty of Paris

     The Treaty of Paris officially ended the French and Indian War in 1763. The French and Indian War was a seven year conflict between the French and British, as they both fought for land in the Americas. After the British won the war, the treaty was issued, and the French were forced to give up all their land they once owned in the new world.

Despite winning the war, the British were in tremendous debt during the aftermath of the war. The war was very expensive to finance; this caused Great Britain to go in debt.

The Proclamation of 1763

The Proclamation of 1763 was a peace treaty signed by Great Britain after the end of the French and Indian War. The main purpose for the proclamation was to resolve many of the conflicts between the British and the Native Americans. The British also subjugated many provinces that once belonged to the French and Spanish when the proclamation was issued. These provinces include Quebec, East and West Florida, and Grenada. Colonists were forbidden from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains once the proclamation was issued. This greatly offended the colonists, since they thought the British only supported the Indians. This caused years of Indian warfare in the area.

Sugar Act

The Sugar Act mainly taxed businesses. The act put a three cent tax on sugar and molasses, and made it so the colonists can't import sugar from the french. This was the first time the colonists boycotted a tax in large numbers. The reason the British taxed the colonists was because they were broke from all the wars they participated. After the colonists boycotted this tax, this British repealed this tax.

Stamp Act

The Stamp Act was a tax that made the people buy stamps to put on certain paper products. Most of the colonies boycotted this tax, except for Georgia because great Britain wouldn't sell them goods if they didn't sell the stamps, which made great Britain repeal the tax. Although the tax itself wasn't that large, the standard that it set angered the colonists. The reason great Britain made this tax was because they needed to get the money back from the wars they fought.

Boston Massacre

The Boston Massacre was started by a group of colonists harassing a guard from great Britain. As the crowd of colonists grew in size the guard called for reinforcements. As the crowd of colonists got angrier they started throwing sticks, stones, and ice at the soldiers. A club hit a soldier and made him fall and accidentally fire his weapon against the crowd, then the rest of the army, and 5 people died. In court the soldiers were judged not guilty.  After word got out to the rest of the colonists this started a chain of events.

Tea Act

This tax was the final tax that sparked the revolution. it was designed to help the East India company. Because of the 18 million pounds of unsold tea in the East India Company, the company wanted to get rid of it, so they decided to sell it to the colonists. The tax on tea that the colonists angered the colonists to the point of rebellion, called the Boston Tea Party.

Boston Tea Party

Led by the sons of liberty, the Boston Tea Party was the destruction of a very large amount of tea. Sparked by the Tea Act the sons of liberty dressed up as Indians and threw a total amount of 342 chests of tea over the edge. The British parliament made the Coercive Act. The tea, owned by the East India Company, costs enough to almost bankrupt the company.

The Coercive Acts

The Coercive Acts were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in June of 1774. The Coercive Acts were indirectly caused by the Boston Tea Party, which took place in Massachusetts six months earlier. The first act of the Coercive Acts was the Boston Harbor being closed. Other than that, the Massachusetts government became very limited, and the colonists living in Massachusetts were forced to house and feed the British soldiers who were sent from Great Britain. Those acts are known as the Intolerable Acts.

The British Parliament passed the laws thinking they could punish the Massachusetts colony for what they did. The other twelve colonies were also affected by the Coercive Acts; they believed the acts would only bring more misery to the colonies. After the First Continental Congress was held in September of 1774, the Coercive Acts were finally repealed.

Lexington and Concord

     The Battle of Lexington and Concord took place during the early hours of April 19th 1775. General Thomas Gage ordered the colonial militias to prepare for the expected attack from the British soldiers. The militia men were often referred to as “minutemen” since they could set up for a battle in just a minute. The battle began at Lexington Green, where Thomas Gage’s army of seventy militiamen had to fight against over two hundred and forty British soldiers. No one knows for sure who fired the first shot, but everyone refers to it as “the shot heard ‘round the world.”

The British, who greatly outnumbered the militiamen, killed seven American soldiers at Lexington Square before marching to Concord. Once the British arrived in Concord, they were ambushed by more militiamen. The British decided to retreat to Boston; many of the British soldiers were killed or wounded by the militiamen on their way to Boston. The British had no other choice but to surrender. This battle began the Revolutionary War.

Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia on May 10th 1775. Just days prior to the meeting, British soldiers invaded the area of Boston in an attempt to arrest the patriots who were protesting against them. The Second Continental Congress was the first meeting Georgia had attended; they sent Archibald Bulloch, Noble W. Jones, and John Houston were the three delegates who represented Georgia in the meeting. The representatives at the meeting agreed to issue what is now known as the Olive Branch Petition, which was a petition sent to King George III asking for peace in the colonies. The king refused to read the petition, and even sent 20,000 more British soldiers to the colonies so he could stop any further protests.

The Declaration Of Independence

The Declaration of Independence summarized the hopes of independence for the colonies. This declaration officially made the colonies there own country, which allowed the colonies to create an alliance with France against Great Britain.  The declaration made all colonies sever their links with Great Britain. The constant taxing of the 13 colonies caused them to join together  and fight the British and the signified their unity by writing the declaration of independence.

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