Moon Phases

Above are the moon phases in order.

Above is a picture that shows how the moon affects ocean tides.


1. Waxing Moon: the moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing

2. Waning Moon: the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon (so called because its illuminated area is decreasing)

3. Gibbous Moon: when the Moon is more than half full, but not quite fully illuminated

4. Crescent Moon: most clearly and brightly visible when the Sun is below the horizon

5. Lunar Cycle: a cycle of 235 synodic months, very nearly equal to 19 years, after which the new moon occurs on the same day of the year as at the beginning of the cycle with perhaps a shift of one day, depending on the number of leap years in the cycle

Above is a Waxing Moon.

Above is a Waning Moon.


Earth's Seasons/Eclipses

Nicolai Copernicus was a man that realized that the Earth was not the center of our solar system not the sun. When the sun's intensity heats up, the Earth's weather increases. This causes Winter, Fall, Spring, and Summer. The sun is most intense during the winter  because not all the heat is absorbed, most of it is lost. The Earth's orbits are the reasons why Lunar Eclipses don't occur every month.

Above is a picture showing the causes of eclipses.

Daytime and nighttime are caused by the position of Earth relative to the sun.


Plate Tectonics

Above is a picture of why we have day and night.


1. Equinox: the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator

2. Solstice: when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator

Alfred Wegener

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Germany. He passed away in 1930 and had one child and two other siblings. Wegener was primarily known for his theory of the Continental Drift. Nobody accepted his theory until the mid 1950's.


1. Continental Drift: is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other

2. Convergent: characterized by convergence; tending to come together; merging

3. Divergent: having no finite limits

4. Transform Boundaries: the Earth's surface continually evolves due to the shifting and shaping of its crust

Above is a picture example that shows each boundary type.

Juan de Fuca is the tectonic plate that is just off the coast of Washington.


Rocks and Roles In Earth's History


1. Sedimentary: the matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid;lees; dregs

2. Metamorphic: pertaining to or characterized by change of form

3. Igneous: produced under conditions involvingintense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rockscrystallized from molten magma

4. Stratification: formation of strata; deposition or occurrence instrata

Above is a phyllite rock.

Above is a picture of a sedimentary rock called "Shale"

This is a igneous molten rock
Above is a picture of stratification in rocks.

When animals die their skeletons add to the Earth and they sink into Earth. When beavers make dams they also make lakes. Animals eat the wild vegetation as well as the vegetation we grow.





1. Cell: a usually microscopic structure containingnuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by asemipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cellwall; the basic structural unit of all organisms

     Plant cells can be larger than animal cells. The normal range for an animal cell varies from 10 to 30 micrometers while that for a plant cell stretches from 10 to 100 micrometers. Beyond size, the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.

An animal cells purpose is to help the animal itself function. When a plant cell kepps the plant alive.

BLOOD: the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of humanbeings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in whichthe red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended

MUSCLE: a tissue composed of cells or fibers, the contraction of which produces movement in the body

NERVE: one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body

Cells are the basic unit of an organism and they meak them work.

Circulatory System pumps blood throughout the body.     

Respiratory System helps you breath and live.

Digestive System helps you digest food that you eat.

The Paramecium looks like a cell but fnctions like its own organism.