Exploring the World

Brennan Wachowiak

7th period History

December 12, 2014

Top Ten

#1 The Olmecs, Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas civilization: The Olmecs were the first MesoAmerican tribe to thrive in the modern day Mexico and their farmers raised maize that fed thousands of people and are known for large stone carvings. The Mayans developed a 365 day calendar based on astronomy. The Aztecs were the most powerful and believed a human sacrifice was necessary just to please the Gods. The Incas built stone roads to connect their cities

#2 The Migration to the Americas across the Bering Strait Ice Bridge: There were nomads that were traveling on an Ice Bridge in search of food and when the Ice Age ended the mammals they were hunting started to die off.

#3 Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci etc. explore the New World: Christopher Columbus explored in search of the New World and landed on Bahamas thinking it was Asia in 1492 then when landing in America they exchanged products such as food and disease. America also traveled west and named the New World America in his honor.

#4 John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Henry Hudson discover land: John Cabot was from England and found Newfoundland, Jacques Cartier was from France and explored much of Quebec, and Henry Hudson was from Netherlands and explored the coastlines of New York and New Jersey.

#5 Jamestown, Plymouth, and many other colonies get discovered in America:  many merchants sought charters from King James I to settle in North America and the colonists had a hard time adjusting to the new climate and the colonists were able to find a cash crop in tobacco. In Plymouth nearly half the Pilgrims died of malnutrition and in the spring the colonists befriended a native  american named Squanto who taught them how to hunt, fish, and grow crops and was a member of the Wampanoag tribe.

#6 The early North American native tribes: The Hohokam were a tribe in Arizona and were experts at finding water in the dry places and dug hundreds of miles of irrigation channels. The Anasazi were a tribe that built pueblos that were great dwellings and eventually they abandoned due to drought. Groups of Native Americans built mounds for religious purposes and resembled in Aztecs and Mayan cultures.

#7 Hernan Cortes, Francisco Pizarro, De Soto and the conquistadors: Hernan Cortes was welcomed by Montezuma, king of the Aztecs. Then eventually Hernan Cortes betrayed Montezuma and enslaved him; destroyed Aztec cities and captured treasure. Pizarro entered Incan lands and captured the Incan King and was assassinated by a rival conquistador.

#8 The French and Indian War start and tensions with England: While the British colonies grew, rivalry developed between the French and English over land claims in the Ohio Valley.

#9 Slavery in North America: The Slaves traveled the Middle Passage to slave markets in the west indies. Nearly 12 million enslaved Africans were transported between the 1400s and the 1800s.

#10 The Mayflower Compact: The Mayflower Compact was a significant step in self-government and stated that the signers would stay loyal to the English and abide all laws

Timeline

18,000 years ago: the Nomads were crossing the Bering Strait Bridge in the search of food and on the trip there many people died

1500 BCE - 300 BCE: the Olmecs were farming maize to feed thousands, The Mayans created a 365 day calendar, the Aztecs conquered much of Mexico, The Incas built roads made of stone to connect their cities.

300 BCE - 1300 CE: the Hohokam lived in Arizona and were experts at finding water in the dry places and made irrigation channels and the Anasazi were building pueblos and lived on the four corners in the SouthWest and eventually abandoned from drought.

1492: Christopher Columbus explored to the west of Europe and started a Columbian Exchange which brought food, disease, animals, etc. when landing on Bahamas thinking it was Asia.

1502: Amerigo Vespucci also sailed west from Europe and he proclaimed the coast of Brazil to be a Continent and the New World was named America in his honor

1521: Hernan Cortes was welcomed into Tenochtitlan by Montezuma who was the king of the Aztecs and then was betrayed and enslaved by Hernan Cortes and destroyed the Aztecs cities and captured treasure

1532: Francisco Pizarro entered the Incan lands and captured the Incan King and was at one point assassinated by conquistador

1541: Hernando De Soto was looking for a passage to China by traveling to the southeast and was known for his brutality

1497: John Cabot was traveling and landed in Newfoundland and was from England

1536: Jacques Cartier explored a lot of Quebec and was from France and once sailed up to the Lawrence River

Biography

Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian explorer and a navigator who discovered that Brazil and the rest of the west indies were not a part of Asia's eastern outskirts. Amerigo Vespucci was born on March 9, 1454 and born in Florence Italy and died February 22, 1512 and died in Seville Spain. When he landed on a new continent referred as the New World and was named in his honor "America" deriving from his latin first name Americus and America was feminine in Latin. Amerigo got all of his education from his uncle "Fra Giorgio Antonia Vespucci". In 1508  the role of chief of navigation of Spain was opened particularly for Vespucci which means that he would have to plan to navigate for the voyages toward the Indies. At the same date king Ferdinand made Vespucci the chief of navigation of Spain at a HUGE salary. In the 18th century a couple of unpublished familiar letters that were sent from Vespucci to Lorenzo de Medici were rediscovered. One of the letters to Lorenzo was about the voyages at 1499-1500 which actually corresponds with the other four voyages. Another of the letters was actually written from Cape Verde in 1501 which was in the early part of the three of the four voyages. both the First and the Fourth are disputed to have occurred and the second and third voyages are supposedly certain voyages.

Newspaper Article

The Olmecs have been having a HUGE drought that have been killing a lot of them off. This is a really big deal because the Olmecs were the ones who farmed the maize in the fields and fed thousands of people in need. These people also need help because they were the first mesoamerican people to start thriving in our so called modern day Mexico. These mesoamerican people are known for many things and giant head  carvings made of stone, jade, and basalt which is volcanic rock of rulers are one of them like the picture on the top. These mesoamericans civilization is dieing and crumbling now and many people do not know why such as the archaeologists. These people are living in the tropical lowlands in south-central Mexico and right now in present day is called Veracruz and Tabasco. These people were living from the 1500 BCE - 400 BCE and these peoples culture is very interesting to everyone that sees them. The word Olmec is derived from two compound words "olli" which means rubber and another "mecatl" which means rope so the whole word means rubber line or lineage. The Olmecs are important because they developed a lot of things religiously and culturally that the Aztecs and Mayans used and they also had a very huge influence that people have believed to have spread some good ideas.

Obituary

Christopher Columbus was a very famous explorer and navigator and successfully completed four of his voyages to the Atlantic Ocean. He was born on 1451 in Genoa, Italy and died on May 20, 1506 in Valladolid, Spain. Christopher Columbus was on a voyage to sail west of Europe and when he arrived in the Bahamas in search of the New World he believed it to be Asia. Christopher Columbus went on a couple of voyages to Africa and he was credited for just opening up America to European colonization. On Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Atlantic Ocean he was attacked by French privateers off the coast of Portugal and his ship was burned and so he had to swim to the Portuguese shore and make up his way to Portugal. Christopher Columbus took his three ship voyage to the Portuguese King and he was rejected but then he took his idea to Genoa and then to Venice but then he was rejected by both of them. Christopher Columbus died of his heart failure and reactive arthritis.

Recipe

The recipe from the 1400's was smoked meat which was usually from the pigs. Meat in their time was very expensive and therefore more prestigious and in the form of game was common only on the tables of nobility. They would smoke the meat by placing it over a fire and turning the meat.  The other foods besides meat back then was just bread and some other stuff so meat was very famous for the Medieval Times.

Map

This is a map of the French and Indian war. the French settlers had been exploring North America since the 1600s and about only 50,000 of them lived in North America. These French settlers were not a threat to the Native American and in fact they respected them and their customs. When the British colonies started to grow the rivalry was starting to develop between the French and the English over the claims of land on the Ohio Valley. The Iroquois Confederacy was trying to give some special trading benefits to the English but they were starting to feel like they were being cheated so they all refused of giving up their land. The French and Indian war began in 1754 and the French people were starting to form a very strong alliance with the Native Americans because as I said they respected their customs. The British regulars were all led by the General William Braddock who's job was to command all the British colonies. George Washington was thinking that the British militaries tactics would be unsuccessful and when the General William Braddock died William Pitt took over his job of command. Pitt created an enormous debt for England paying for a lot of war supplies. The British were planning a sneak attack at night by going on a path that they found on the back of a cliff so during the night they went up the hill and captured Quebec and Quebec City which was the capital of New France that was said to be unconquerable.

By the Numbers

144 settlers sailed on into the Chesapeake Bay and they established Jamestown along the James River which is now called tidewater Virginia

1619 the House of Burgesses was created to start a representative government

1624 King James cancelled the Virginia Companies charter and then Jamestown started to become a royal colony

102 passengers boarded the Mayflower to head up to Jamestown and 35 were pilgrims the rest were strangers

1770 the population of the colonies was 250,000 and by 1775 the population would grow to 2,500,000

at least 1,000,000 people emigrated to the colonies in 1607-1775

12,000,000 enslaved Africans were shipped to the colonies in the 1400s to the 1800s

1754 the French and Indian war was starting to begin

only 50,000 French lived in America but the French all agreed with the Native Americans customs and cultures so they made a strong alliance

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III banned all the colonists to stay in the west of the Appalachian mountains

Citations

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