Arab Nationalist Movement

Led by Nasser

By Hriju Adhikari and Lainey Berlin

  • Nations that gained independence after world war 2 encouraged the development of Arab nationalism in states
  • Wanted to fend off European and US influence

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser - Led Arab's Nationalism
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser provided leadership for Arab's nationalism
  • Became prime minister and took control
  • A leader of Pan-Arab Nationalism

Arab Differences

  • Arab lands were together in many ways like language and religion but they were divided by alliances
    • Religion difference - Sunnis and Shiites
    • Split with alliances in Cold War, some with US and some with Soviet Union or shifted betweent the two
  • As Israel became an alliance with the United States and many Arab-Islamic states allied with the Soviet Union caused political turmoil

Arab-Israeli War

Arab vs. Israeli War (Arab-Israeli War)
  • Israel defeated Egypt and Syria
  • Yom Kippur (major Jewish holiday, attacked)
  • Intensified tensions within the region

Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat
    • Replaced Nasser as Egypt president
    • Facilitated peace processes
    • Negotiator
    • Assassinated by opponents of his policies toward Israel
  • Palestinian liberation organization (PLO)
    • Served as a government in exile for Palestinians displaced from Israel

The Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (1978 - 1979)
  • Islamic influences penetrated Iran during the lengthy regime of Pahlvi.
  • Money that came from iran's oil industry helped finance industrialization.
  • U.S. provided military equipment that enabled Iran to be a support of anticommunism in the region.
  • Shiites despised the shah's secular regime
  • Iranian small business didn't like the United States influence on their economy.
  • The revolution strongly took on a anti U.S. cast
    • Iranian leaders shut down United States military bases
    • Confisticted U.S.-owned ventures
    • Inspired Muslims to take terrorist actions

The Iran-Iraq War

The Iran-Iraq War
    • By late 70s, Iraq built military machine
    • Saddam Hussein became the president of Iraq in 1979
    • Hussein attacked Iran in 1980
      • Hoped to be the new leader of Pan-Arab nationalism
      • Thought victory would be quick
      • Successful, but faced determined counterattack
    • Turned into a war that didn't end until 1988
    • Signs of recovery and a relaxation of Islamic strictness appeared in Iran in the late 1990s.
  • 2 years after Iran-Iraq war
    • Hussein attacked Kuwait leading to the Gulf War

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