Equality in American History

African-Americans in World War I

Chapter 11: Reconstruction

The 13th Amendment was ratified, allowing African-American slaves to become free. The former slaves then looked to find travel education and land. As this was hard for them, The Freedman's Bureau was created to assist the former slaves and poor whites. Also, the Radical Republicans helped to petition for blacks and was granted the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Following the 13th Amendment, the 14th Amendment was ratified to equalize whites and blacks. Then, African-Americans were given the right to vote. After the 14th Amendment, the 15th Amendment was ratified to grant African-Americans political voting rights, and along them came African-American schools, and the Enforcement Acts, which made it illegal for black's rights to be denied. Being granted these rights, African Americans gained equality, in a legal sense, to whites.

Vocabulary: 13th Amendment, 14th Amendment, 15th Amendment, Freedman's Bureau, civil rights, Radical Republicans, tenant farming, sharecropping, debt peonage, Ku Klux Klan, amnesty, poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause, Jim Crow Laws, lynched, Plessey vs Furgeson

Chapter 12: Change and Conflict in the American West

All Americans had equal opportunities to go mind in California in the late 40's and 50's. People could be miners, farmers, and gold/silver/mineral searchers. All people had the opportunities to work and build on the railroad. Immigrants had equal opportunity when they came to the United States.

Vocabulary: Vaqueros, Chisholm Trail, transcontinental railroad, lobbyist, reservations, assimilaton, Dawes Act, Homestead Act, Exodusters, populism, Monetary policy, Gold standard, populist party.

Chapter 13: The Age of Innovation and Industry

(No equality shown in Chapter)

Vocabulary: Capitalism, Bessemer Process, Factors of Production, Capital, corporations, monopoly, trusts, horizontal integration, vertical integration, laissez-faire, Social Darwinism, entrepreneurs, philanthropists

Chapter 14: Labor's Response to Industrialism

African-Americans were given new job opportunities. They joined labor unions to increase their rights, and began to receive more money from working. This provided many African Americans to stand for their rights and have a job; this made their opportunity equal to the whites.

Vocabulary: working class, division of labor, sweatshops, child labor, tenements, labor unions, strike, AFC, socialism, collective bargaining, Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike, anarchists

Chapter 15: Through Ellis Island and Angel Island: The Immigrant Experience

The Statue of Liberty was a gift from France to symbolize gaining freedom. During the time, booming industries offered workers (immigrants) jobs. Many immigrants had equal opportunity to those with jobs as they gained jobs. This gift from France also symbolizes how we had become a independent nation that was now an "equal" to its allies.

Vocabulary: push factors, pull factors, arable, pogroms, America Letters, steerage, Ellis Island immigration station, deportation, settlement house, political bosses, Americanization, nativism, Angel Island Immigrants Station

Chapter 16: Uncovering Problems at the Turn of the Century

Muckrakers revealed the bad in the U.S. such as poor sanitation, lack of fire protection and horrible working conditions. Women gained opportunity to go to college, and women's voting rights were pursued. Muckrakers made the news "equal" by writing about the corruption in the U.S. rather than the usual report on the good. Women gained equal opportunity to go to college as men did.

Vocabulary: muckraker, urbanization, infrastructure, The Jungle, extractive industries, political machines,  Tammany Hall, patronage, Pendleton act, civil service, temperance movement

Chapter 17: The Progressives Respond

People wanted to introduce immigrants to Americanization. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People fought for blacks voting rights. Other movements would include women's rights, and the movement to stop child labor so children could be educated and have equal chance to be successful as others who didn't work. People wanted to assimilate immigrants into U.S. culture so they would be "equal", women and blacks fought for their deserving rights which would make them equal to men and whites. Children that worked outside of school had less opportunity than students who didn't have to work, giving them unequal opportunity. People fought for child labor to end

Vocabulary: hull house, progressives, activist, Social Gospel, National Child Labor Committee, workers compensation, recall, initiative, referendum, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, suffrage association, Tuskegee Institute

Chapter 18: Progressivism on the National Stage

Theodore Roosevelt's promises a square deal. Roosevelt believed consumers should revive a fair and honest deal on presidential power used to benefit all Americans. He also helped varieties of people (miners, consumers, environment). Roosevelt gave many different workers improved pay, work hours and conditions, everyone benefited making Roosevelt's help equal.

Vocabulary: square deal, third party, New Freedom, Pure food and Drug Act, arbitration, preservation, Federal Peserve System, 16th Amendment, graduated income tax, 17th Amendment, prohibition, 19th Amendment.

Chapter 19: Foreign Policy: Setting a Course of Expansionism

All people had the equality to five their opinion on the U.S. foreign policy and all people's opinions were taken into account. They also had the equal opportunity to move around the U.S and get new jobs.

Vocabulary: cede, Texas Revolution, Mexican War, Imperialism, protectorate, diplomacy, realism, idealism, neutrality, War of 1812, non-colonization, non-interance, Monroe Doctrine.

Chapter 20: The Spanish-American War

Americans seeing Cuban rebellion as a struggle for freedom was equal to the Independence of America from some Americans' perspectivces. People went against imperialism because it was violating others' freedom and democracy which made them unequal.

Vocabulary: yellow journalism, mass media, USS Maine, armistice, resolution rough eiders, San Juan Hill, protocol, Anti-Imperialist League, Platt Amendment

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