Earth, Moon, and The Sun

By: Grace O'Malley

Lesson 1

How does Earth move in space?

Earth moves in two major ways, rotation and revolution. A rotation is the spinning of Earth on its axis. A Rotation causes day and night. One rotation takes twenty four hours. As Earth rotates to the east the sun appears to move west across the sky. As Earth turns to the east the sun appears to set in the west. A revolution is the movement of one object around another. Earth follows an orbit, which is slightly ellipse, as it revolves around the sun over the course of three hundred and sixty five days, or one year.  

What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?

Earth has seasons because it is tilted as it revolves around the Sun. Earth has an angle of 23.5 degrees, this means that as The Earth revolves over the course of a year the sunlight is direct in different places.  During the June solstice the top end of Earth's axis, or the north pole the sun is closer and more direct. At this time it is Summer in the Northern Hemisphere and Winter in the south.  During the March and September Equinoxes both hemispheres are towards the sun so both the North and the South receive and equal amount of sunlight.  At the time of the December Solstice the Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.  At this time it is summer in the Southern hemisphere Winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

Lesson 2

What determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?

The strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on two factors, the mass of the objects and the distance between them.  The force of gravity decreases rapidly as distance increases.  Gravity attracts all objects toward one another. Mass increases so the force does too. If the distance increases then the force decreases.

What two factors combine to keep the Moon and Earth in orbit?

Two factors that combine to keep the moon and earth in orbit are inertia, the tendency to resist a change in motion, and gravity, which attracts all objects towards each other. The Earth's gravity pulls the moon toward it.  If it weren't for Earth's gravity inertia would make the Moon would go in a straight line forever. Earth is the sun; the sun's gravity pulls the moon towards it so Earth's orbit continues.

Lesson 3

What causes the phases of the moon?

The phase of the moon that you see depends on how much sunlight is hitting the surface of the moon and which way the moon is facing. Phases are also caused by the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun. Half of the moon is almost always lit, but as the moon revolves around earth it is seen from different angles.

What are solar and lunar eclipses?

A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, the moon blocks light from reaching us here on earth.  A lunar eclipse is basically the opposite, a lunar eclipse occurs when the sun blocks light from reaching the moon.  The Moon is then in Earth's shadow, Lunar eclipses only occur when there is a full moon because it is closest to Earth's shadow.

What causes the tides?

Gravity pulls the moon towards Earth, including the water on the Earth which leads to tides. Tides are caused by how much gravity from the Moon pulls on different parts of our planet.  This is why the water rises and falls, otherwise known as tides.

Lesson 4

What features are found on the Moon's surface?

Features found on the Moon's surface are maria, craters, and highlands.  Maria are hardened rock that came from flowing lava 3 to 4 billion years ago.  Craters are caused from the impacts of meteoroids, or chunks of dust and rock. Highlands are mountains on the Moon.

What are some characteristics of the Moon?

A characteristic of the Moon is that it is very small compared to other planets, in fact the diameter of the Moon is lass than the distance across the US and 1/4 the diameter of our planet.  This "small" planet is also airless, dry and has a big difference in temperature compared to Earth. With the sun hitting the surface of the moon it can reach around 250 degrees Fahrenheit, so it is very hot, though the part without sun gets down to about -240 degrees Fahrenheit. The moon looks bright at night because the light from the sun is being reflected off the Moon's surface.  On the moon water is not present so life on the Moon could not take place.

How did the Moon form?

The theory of how the Moon was formed is that a planet-sized object collided with Earth to form the Moon about 4.5 billion years ago.  Material from outer layers of Earth and the object were ejected into orbit around Earth where the debris formed the Moon which is in a circular orbit around Earth.

      Moon Crater 500 International

Join me on the moon for a ring side seat to the most  popular race on the moon! Each of the 20 racers will have  a moon rover for their team. The race will start at 3:32 P.M.  each car will go 500 laps around Raceway crater,

TRANSPORTATION: Meet me at the Kennedy space center for                       launch to the moon! Launch at 05:00.(you might                    want to bring a little extra money, tickets for                            seats may or may not cost money)
                          --Shotgun will cost $1.98 extra--

                              HOPE TO SEE YOU THERE!

Please RSVP
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ATaylor 2 years ago
GO'Malley Organizer

Great, see you guys there!

ECronin 2 years ago
AudreyOLeskiewicz 2 years ago

Sounds Fun!!!!

Catie 2 years ago
? Alyssa Santora 2 years ago

Transportation-Rocket Launch Destination

Moon Data

 Here is A sample of Seventeen   days of moon observation   From April 8-April 23, 2015

Comment Stream

2 years ago

Love your color scheme! :) Grrrr Bill!!

2 years ago


2 years ago

Great job, Lots of good picture, my favorite is the last one. Also, your moon observations, I can't see them, it asked for permission.

2 years ago

You have really amazing pictures, and I love the background! But how did you get a Rover? Anyway, great presentation :)

2 years ago

@AT211 Thank you! As for the moon rover, I have my ways...

2 years ago

@ECronin thanks, I agree 100% especially, for Monday, Grrrrrr Bill!!!!!!! ;) @rflack thanks for the suggestion, my observations should be open for people to view now!

2 years ago

Nice Job! Open your doc so I can see it.