Rocks and Landforms Research Project

By : Rebecca Riley ,Period 2, November 24

During this project you will be learning about three diffrent kinds of rocks  Sedimentary rocks, Igneous rocks , an Metaphoric rocks, and six diffrent landforms among the United States.

Sedimentary Rocks

~Above shows where in the United States you can find Sedimentary Rocks. ~

Descriptions : Sedimentary rocks : Sedimentary rocks are the type of rocks that are formed by the depositions at the material of the surface within bodies of water. Sedimentation is a collegiate name for the process that minerals and organic particles to settle and minerals to participate from a solution.   

~Characteristics on Sedimentary Rocks pictures from below ~

Sandstone :  Sandstone is composed of sand sized grains of minerals, rock , or organic material.

Conglomerate : Conglomerate is consisting of individual finger grained matrix that has been cemented together.

Limestone : Limestone is composed largely of the materials calcite and aragonite which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate.

Shale: Shale is composed of mud , mixed flacked of of clay materials me tiny fragments of other materials mainly quartz and calcite.

Breccia: Breccia is composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together.

Igneous Rocks

- Above shows where in the United States you can find an Igneous Rocks.-

Descriptions : An Igneous Rock is one of the three main rock it is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The word Igneous Rock comes from the Latin word ignis meaning fire.

- Characteristics from the Igneous Rock pictures below.-

Obsidian Rocks : Obsidian Rocks are formed as a result of cooled lava , having a low content of water when newly formed it has less than 1 % of water.

Pumice Rocks: Pumice Rocks are a glass filled with a gas bubble holes. It may be caught with a glass foam , due to the large bubbles it is very light - weighted , it is so light it can float on water , the Pumice Rocks come in many different colors but is mostly seen in grey.

Royaltie Rocks: Royaltie Rocks is a high silica fine grained rock. You can not see the mineral grains with the naked eye. It colors are grey , light brown, tan, pale yellow, pink , and other earthly colors. Sometimes you will see this rock with crystals in it , but mostly it is fined grained. It has the same chemical and mineral content as a granite.

Andesite Rock : Andesite Rock is named of fine grained igneous rock that is midway in color and mineral compostion between rhyolites and basalt. They are commonly grey or some shade of brown. They have porphyritic texture ; they have large visible crystals surrounded by grey or brown.

Basalt Rock : Basalt is a fine grained igneous rock rich in iron that gives a black to brown color. Fluid lava flows as those in Hawaii produce basalt. Basalt has large number of gas bubbles holes it is called vesicular basalt or scoria. Basalt that has been exposed through the air as a red color.

Metamorphic Rocks

- Above Shows where in the United States you can find an Metamorphic Rocks.-

Decripstions : Metamorphic Rocks : Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form". The original rock the heat temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C and pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical or chemical change.

- Characteristics of the Metamorphic Rocks listed in the pictures below.-

Slate: The slate rock is formed from mud , shale , and sometimes basalt, under relatively low pressure and temperature conditions. Clay materials in the rock metamorphose into mica minerals such as biotote, chlorite, muscovite. When the slate rock breaks into smooth flat pieces.

Schist: The Schist rock is fine to medium grained; can often see crystals with the naked eye, it is generally hard. This rock is smooth to touch you often see this rock alternating lighter and darker bands, it is often shiny often shiny. There are many varieties of schist and they are named for the dominant mineral comprising the rock, mica schist, green schist (green because of high chlorite content), garnet schist etc.

Gneiss: The gneiss rock is a high grade metamorphic rock, meaning that it has been subjected to higher temperatures and pressures than schist. The gneiss rock is typically associated in major mountain buildings . Gneisses from western Greenland comprise the oldest crustal rocks known (more than 3.5 billion years old). Gneiss is an old German word meaning bright or sparkling.

Marble: The marble rock is a metamorphic rock formed when limestone is exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Marble forms under such conditions because the calcite forming the limestone , forms a denser rock consisting of roughly calcite crystals. The colors of this rock is variable - pure marble is white but marble exists in a wide variety of all the way through to black .

Quartzite: The Quartzite Rocks is a metamorphic rock when sandstone , chert, has been exposed to high temperatures, and pressures. The grains form together forming a dense , hard rock. When you look in the rock you can see the crystals with the naked eye. The colors of the rock are white but quartzite exists in a wide variety of colors