Mongols and Yuan Dynasty
Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
Pictured above is Genghis Kahn, also known as Temujin. Genghis Kahn means "Universal Ruler". He helped the Mongols become a very powerful militarily machine. For 20 years, Genghis Kahn led the Mongols in conquering mush of Asia. By the time he died in 1227, the Mongols controlled much of Northern China and Central Asia. on his death bed he stated, "With Heaven's aid I have conquered for you a huge empire. But my life was too short to achieve the conquest of the world. This task is left for you." His sons and grandsons took up the challenge. Four khanates, regions, were created out of the land Genghis Kahn had taken over. In the map at the top, the four different colors represent theses different regions. An heir of Genghis Kahn ruled each one.
Kublai Kahn was one of the grandsons of Genghis Kahn. Under his rule, the Mongols resumed their efforts to complete the conquest of China and Korea. Another grandson, Hulegu, ruled Ilkante (Persia). He and his forces conquered Persia which caused a path of death and destruction. The Golden Horde (Kipchak) was taken over by grandson Batu. He took up the task of conquering Russia in 1236.
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
Kublai Kahn created the new Yuan dynasty and declared himself ruler. This was the first time that foreigners ruled all of China. While Kublai ruled, he built a walled city in the Chinese style as well as a lavish palace. Mongols and Chinese were not allowed to have any contact with each other and it was forbidden for either to marry one another. Foreign trade increased and Kublai had enormous ships built to trade across the seas. Marco Polo was also a very important person in the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai had him go on many different missions in and out of China for 17 years. The Yuan Dynasty started to fail towards the end of Kublai Kahn's rule. One reason was because they had so many military defeats. Another was because Kublai had spent so much time and money on public-work projects that it started to effect the economy. Kublai died in 1294 causing many power struggles.