Independence Movements In Africa

Kwame Nkhrumah: Gained independence from Britain in Ghana band led the Pan-African movement which was a movement for unity among all people of African decsent and Independence for Africa.

South Africa: South Africa gained independence from Britain in 1910 and became the strongest African state in Africa. They had a lot of strength from extraction of minerals and industrial development, this also opened up many jobs for blacks creating a possible change in their status. The whites were not pleased with black activism and called for change and the Afrikaner National Party institueded the Apartheid.

Apartheid/ANC/Nelson Mandela: The Apartheid was a series of strict laws enforcing white superiority and discriminated all black independence. These laws encouraged while supremacy and institutionalized racial segregation. The African National Congress formed in 1912 to oppose the Apartheid, directly challenging white rule. Nelson Mandela was a prime leader of the ANC leading in campaigns and protesting against the Apartheid.


Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya

-Violent clashes between native Kikuyu (Mau Mau) and European settlers after 1947

-1930s and 1940s, Kikuyu pushed off farm lands, reduced to wage slaves

-Labeling Mau Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U.S. support

-Kikuyu uprising crushed by superior arms in 1955; twelve thousand Africans killed

-Political parties legalized, 1959; Kenya gained independence, 1963


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