TB pg. 640

- Metaphors: describe one thing as if it were something else.

- Personification: gives human qualities to something nonhuman.

- Similes: use like or as to compare two unlike things.

- Alliteration: is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words, as in feathered friend.

- Repetition: is the repeated use if a sound, word, or phrase.

- Assonance: is the repetition of a vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds, as in fade and hay.

- Consonance: is the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds, as in end and hand.

- Onomatopoeia: is the is of words that imitate sounds, like Pow!

- Rhyme:is the repetition of sounds at the end of words--thin skin.

- Rhythm:is the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem. Rhythm is music and in poetry are similar.

TB pg. 641

Lines: help poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts. Each line may be punctuated differently, or not at all. A capital letter usually introduces the beginning of a line.

Stanzas: are the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts. Each stanza is set off from the next stanza by a blank line below it. Certain forms of poetry have a set of number of lines and a rhythmical pattern

Meter: is the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables. Strong and weak beats can be indicated.

Rhyme scheme: is the pattern of rhyme in a poem. it is written in letters; aabb is a stanza whose first two and last two lines rhyme

TB pg.642

Lyric poetry: expresses the thoughts and feelings of a of a single speaker, often in very musical verse. The speaker and the poet are not always the same person. Lyric poetry is a broad category that includes many specific types of poems, such as sonnets, odes and elegies.

Sonnets: are fourteen-line poems with formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme. Sonnets' subjects often vary, but the purpose of a sonnet is to praise.

Odes: are poems with a formal tone, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.

Elegies: are formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes. The structure of elegies varies considerably.

Narrative poetry: tells a story in verse. Narrative poems have elements like those in a short story, such as setting, plot, and characters. The category of narrative poetry includes narrower classifications, such as epics and ballads.

Epics: are long narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero. As fits its subject, an epic has a serious, elevated tone and sometimes has a regular meter. Epics often begin with an appeal to a muse-- the beings that the ancient Greeks believed controlled inspiration in the arts.

Ballads: are song-like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.

Free Verse poetry: is defined by its lack of strict structure. It has no regular meter, no intentional rhyme, no fixed line length, and no specific stanza pattern. Instead, the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.

Limericks: are humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.

Concrete Poem: In a concrete poem the words are arranged on the page to form a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem. Concrete poems often have a lighthearted or humorous tone. Their structure is loose, without regular meter. though they may rhyme.

Haikus: are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature. The form originated in Japan, but its simplicity and power has made it popular worldwide. Its tone is often thoughtful, but it can be playful as well.