Elements and Principles of Design

Cesar Pelaez

Point is the most basic element of design and has a postion but no dimension.
Line only has a length dimension and can be used to define boundaries and indicate volume.
Color has an immediate and profound effect on a design.
Value is the relative lightness or darkness of a color, oject , or shape.
Shape is a 2D area enclosed by lines or curves.
Form can described by a 3D volume or solid such as this baseball.
Space is the area between and around parts of an image or the implied depth in that image
Texture refers to the look and feel of a surface.
Balance is the distribution of elements within a structure or equal spacing of objects.
Emphasis is used to draw attention to one area such as the coloredlead on this color pecils.
Contrast can be used to emphasize an element of a design.
Rhythm gives an object a look of movement via the use of repeated use of line, shape, color, texture, or pattern.
Proportion is the relative size of one object in comparison to another such as the head and the body above.
Unity is the consistent use of design elements.
Economy is the use of the bare minimum of elements.
An acute triangle is a triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
A circle is a round plane figure whose boundary consists of points equidistant from the center.
A quadrilateral is a foru-sided polygon.
A polygon can be any plane figure bounded by straight lines.
A fillet is a curve formed at the interior intersection between two or more surfaces.

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