by Bella Hodgson

Skeletal system


Describe its skeletal system. what are some key features? A prawn has 3 main parts to its body; head, tail and stomach area. It has an exoskeleton, it's shell is on the outside, thin shell, head an tail easily removed.

What are some of the roles of the skeleton for the prawn? The shell is easily removed. It wouldn't be able to survive as it's body would slowly soften and fall off.

What other types of animals have this skeletal system? Crabs also have an exoskeleton however their shells are much harder.

How is it different to our skeletal system? Our skeletons are inside whilst theirs arson the outside. Their skeleton protects their "skin" and organs whilst our skin is over our bones and protects our most important organs e.g. Our skull protects our brain.

What are some benefits of this kind of skeletal system? You have a layer of protection.

What are some disadvantages of this kind of skeletal system? It is a very thin layer of protection. It is easily able to crack and it's their only layer of protection.

How might it grow? They shed their shell and re-grow, making them vulnerable until it's grown back.

What is this kind of skeletal system called? It is called an exoskeleton.

What is the skeleton made of? It is made of chitlin.

Prawn body after dissection


Describe the cuttlebone. It has a rough surface and is solid and hard.

What would it's main role be? To help it float and impact protection.

What is it made of? It is made of calcium carbonate.

Is this an internal or external skeleton? It is an internal skeleton because it has a layer of skin covering the bone shown in the picture below.



What kind of skeletal system does the worm have? It doesn't have a skeleton. That is why it is so flexible and stretchy.

How does this work? The worm is flexible and stretchy so it can dig through the dirt easily and escape the grips of predators.



Describe the structure of our skeleton. Protection the skull protects our organ the brain, support our bones are solid to keep us upright, movement our bones are flexible so we can move from place to place.

What is our skeletal system made of? Bone marrow and tissue.

What is the role of our skeletal system? To protect our main organs support us and allow us movement.

What is the role of bone marrow? Where is this found? It produces red blood cells in the long bones and generates lymphocytes that help the immune system. Found in all bones.

What materials are bones made of? Bone marrow.

How does our skeletal system change as we develop? As we grow our bones materials expand causing bones to merge or grow.

What is this skeletal system called? Endoskeleton.

What other kind of animal have this kind of skeletal system? Chimpanzee's, elephants and many more.

The Musculars system

What structures do the upper wing and lower wing correspond to in humans? Upper wing corresponds with the biceps and the lower wing corresponds with the triceps.

What happens when you tug at the upper wing? The lower wing moves up and down contracting and relaxing.

What muscles do they correspond to in humans? Biceps and triceps.

Which muscle is an extensor? The bicep or upper wing.

Which muscle is a flexor? The triceps or lower wing.

What happens when you tug on the lower wing muscle? They bicep and tricep flex and extend.

What is the tissue called in the muscle? Tendons.

Describe what the tissue looks like. Tough, pale and it surrounds the bone.

What is the tissue that connects the bone at this joint called? It is called a ligament.

What kind of joint is this? A hinge joint.

What kind of joint connects the wing at the shoulder? It is a ball and socket joint.

Describe the cartilage that lines the joint (appearance, texture, how much is there)? It is white, hard, has a bit of blood near it and surrounds the whole bone.

Name the bones found in the chicken wing. The humorous, ulna and radius.

Circulatory system

Describe the appearance of the heart. What does it look like? How does it feel? Are there any features you can describe?Red and white. Very firm and slippery.

Provide a sketch of the front exterior of the heart. Label all key parts.

Find the blood vessel on the heart muscle. These are the coronary arteries. They carry nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle.

Describe what this artery looks like.What do you think would happen if this artery was blocked? Tree branch and roots. Lighter shade of red very thin.

How do you know which is the left and the right side of the heart? The left side has a bigger muscle, you should be able to feel the stronger muscle as it should be harder. If you cannot figure out the biggest muscle, find the biggest hole at the top of the heart, stick your finger down it and whichever side it goes to should be the left side.

Have a feel of the thickness of the heart muscle at the top and the bottom of the heart. Describe the following features.

A. The thickness of the muscle at the top of the heart. It is a lot softer then the rest of the heart and is covered in fat.It is a lot harder than the top of the heart and it would have to be because the top has to push the blood down which isn’t very hard but the bottom or the ventricles to push the blood all the way up the arteries.

B. The amount of fat surrounding the heart. There is quite a lot of fat clinging on to the top of the heart, it has become solid (not sure if that is because it has been out of the body) but interestingly it isn’t at the bottom of the heart.

C. Any major vessels entering or exiting the heart. Yes you can see the aorta, pulmonary vein and artery as well as the vena cava.

Find the pulmonary artery that leaves the right ventricle.Find the pulmonary vein that enters the left atrium.

Write correct answer; Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle in an artery and travels to the lungs. Here, the blood collects oxygen, so it is now oxygenated. The blood travels back to the heart via a vein.

Find the aorta that carries the blood away from the left ventricle of the heart. Describe the thickness of this vessel. Why do you it needs to be so thick. The aorta has to be thick because it has to push the blood up and out of the heart then all over the body through a thin tube.

Where is it taking blood to? All of your working organs including brain, stomach and many more.

Find the vena cava. This is the vein that returns blood from the body.Compare the thickness of the vena cava to the aorta. Why do you think this is different? Because the vena cava has a thinner muscle wall and has valves pushing the blood upwards whilst the aorta has a thicker muscle wall and has to push the blood around the body.

What part of the heart does the vena cava go back to? The right atrium.

Remember what you observe when you observed the water flowing through the heart. Which blood vessel did the water come out of? The pulmonary artery.When the water was flowing into the pulmonary vein, which vessel did it come out of? The aorta because it came in the pulmonary vein through the left atrium and ventricle then up and out of the aorta.

"Walk through the heart"

The pulmonary vein takes oxygen to the heart and into the left atrium. It is then pushed up through the left ventricle and out the aorta to the rest of the body to oxygenate our organs. The vena cava brings the now deoxygenated blood back to the heart through the right atrium then right ventricle up the pulmonary artery back to the lungs for the blood to be oxygenated again and restart the cycle.

respiratory system

Pluck demo


The skeletal system and muscular system work off each other to make our bodies move easily. Our muscles flex and extend whilst our bones move to allow the muscles to do so. Our bones joints have formed over time to allow our muscles and body to move the way they can. The circulatory and respiratory systems are linked because the blood that goes around our body needs to be oxygenated for our organs to work, our lungs breathe in air that contains oxygen for our blood to take to our organs. The lungs breathe in air that goes down the trachea to our lungs where the bronchi branch out taking the oxygen to our alveoli, the alveoli are surrounded by capillaries which are semi-permeable allowing gas exchange. The capillaries let out the carbon dioxide and take the oxygen back to the heart through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. It is then pushed up through the left ventricle and out the aorta to the rest of the body to oxygenate our organs. The vena cava brings the now deoxygenated blood back to the heart through the right atrium then right ventricle up the pulmonary artery back to the lungs for the blood to be oxygenated again and restart the cycle.

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