How the Communist Theory/Practice has Evolved

Karl Marx

"Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!" -Karl Marx

-After Laissez-faire economics was introduced during the Industrial Revolution by Adam Smith, many workers began to struggle for their survival and feel alienated. This was caused due to the bourgeoisie creating their own system of rules in their factories, which ultimately benefited them, and not the workers. Karl Marx came in soon after and proposed a new ideology, in which many proletarians agreed with because it focused on improving their working conditions. However, a large amount of the bourgeoisie were held accountable to dislike Marx's theory. Ultimately, his ideas soon became the foundation for communism as the years progressed and he earned the title of "Father of Communism".

-Marx's views on communism consisted of man living in a constant state of survival. Moreover, that in order to survive, man had to form relationships with others who had common interests. He also saw that throughout history, there was a constant battle between the rich and poor. In his vision, he saw a communist uprising in industrialized areas and that it would be lead by the proletarians. Overall, Marx wanted equality for the working class.

-Proletarians = Factory workers. Bourgeoisie = Factory owners and middle class. Laissez-faire economics = "Let it happen" economics in which the Gov. doesn't interfere with public actions. Alienated = To cause one to feel isolated. Communism = Factors of production (land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship) are owned by the people.


"Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country" -Lenin

-Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks, who were very radical. Therefore he had some famous background. Lenin wanted a revolution to occur, so he was organizing it through secret newspapers that were distributed to certain people. Eventually, many peasants were in agreement with Lenin's ideas for a revolution, allowing him to gain power, which he would use to rule Russia. Lenin came up with his ideas because the Czars in Russia were resisting change. Throughout his efforts, he had to flee Russia a few times and ultimately got his way and became the ruler of Russia.

-Lenin's views of communism were based off of helping the peasants, like he did with the New Economic Policy. In addition, Lenin created a slogan in which portrayed what he wanted to achieve during his rule, "Peace, Land, Bread". He envisioned a communist revolution resulting in both industrialized areas and rural areas, compared to Marx's idea of it only occurring in industrialized areas. Moreover, Lenin agreed with Marx's ideology of saying that there is a constant battle between the rich and poor. Furthermore, he saw that problems resulted from the capitalists, proletarians, and peasants.

-Czars-Rulers of Russia. Radicals-People who are pro-violence. New Economic Policy-People grow their own crops and sell surpluses. Allow small businesses for ordinary interests. Mixing capitalism and socialism. Proletarians-Factory workers. Capitalism-Factors of production are owned by private individuals. Communism-Factors of production are owned by the people.

Mao Zedong

"Communism is not love. Communism is a hammer which we use to crush the enemy" -Mao Zedong

-Mao Zedong came about because in 1921, he helped put together the Chinese Communist Party. Over the years, the party grew because other countries, like Russia, were also going through a Communist uprising. Lenin, Russia's leader at the time, sent supplies to China in order to help expand China's new Communist Party. Moreover, the Chinese Communists had a Long March, where they traveled 6000 miles to avoid Jieshi, and gain followers at the same time. Mao's popularity slowly grew due to all of these movements, thereby making him supported and known by many.

- Mao's vision of communism was that the peasants were going to control the revolution and that it would occur in rural areas. He was very much for the peasants because he saw that they needed equal treatment and rights. Mao wanted the peasants to grasp freedom and to take down: imperialism, militarism, corrupt officialdom, village bosses, and evil gentry. Compared to Lenin and Marx's views on communism, they had their similarities and differences. Compared to Marx, Mao envisioned the communist revolution occurring in rural areas, whereas Marx saw it happening in Industrialized areas. Even on who would start the revolution the two differed because Marx saw it uprising with the proletarians while Mao, the peasants. Furthermore, Lenin had the exact same views as Mao, just added on because where it would happen, he saw rural and Industrialized areas. Then, with who, he saw the peasants and proletarians as the leaders of the revolution.

-Communism-Factors of production are owned by the people. Imperialism-When a stronger country takes over a weaker one. Industrialized areas=Places that have had new technology advancements. Rural areas-Places such as villages.

The Inter-War period 1919-1939

"Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be known in history as the century of Fascism" -Benito Mussolini

-Following the years after WWI, some countries began to develop hatred towards communism/socialism. Italy's Mussolini, Germany's Hitler, and Japan's Hirohito. Mussolini was enraged after the Treaty of Versaille because Italy did not get a lot of land from it. In the end, he developed a new ideology known as Fascism. Moreover, he decided to conduct a group known as the Blackshirts to go and beat up any socialists/communists they could find. Shortly after, Hitler came into the picture. He was completely angered over the Treaty of Versaille as well because it literally destroyed Germany's land and economy. As time progressed, Hitler joined the Nazi party and over time, he was able to gain a lot of power. With all of this power, Hitler influenced many of the German people that Fascism was the best after being inspired by Mussolini and looking at Germany's problems. Hirohito rose after taking over Japan and moved towards a Fascist regime. Together, these three countries formed the Axis powers leading up to WWII.

-Communism-Factors of production are owned by the people. Socialism-Factors of production are owned by the government. Treaty of Versaille-Way to punish Germany after WWI by making them take blame, pay reparations, and give up some land. Nazi-National Socialist German Worker's Party. Fascism-When a person tries to create a utopian society by becoming dictator and having no diversity (ie. no political parties except one).


-During the 1960's Fidel Castro was in power, after becoming dictator in 1959. He came into power after overthrowing Fulgenico Batista during the Cuban Revolution. He and his brother, along with many revolutionary activists, were able to fight and win what they felt was right. At first, Castro was not successful and imprisoned. Although he had many setbacks, his revolutionary force never gave up and successfully overthrew Batista. Following the aftermath, Castro became involved in the Communist Party of Cuba, where he established Communism as Cuba's dominant ideology and joined an alliance with the USSR. Compared to Marx, Lenin, and Zedong, Cuba's view on communism started with revolutionary activists, unlike the others who thought the communist revolution would occur with peasants and/or the proletarians. Moreover, Castro had his revolution in Cuba; whereas Marx, Lenin, and Zedong pictured theirs in either industrialized and/or rural areas.

-USSR-Union of Soviet Socialists Republics.

My views on Communism/Socialism

-In my personal view, I am neither in favor for nor against communism/socialism. I stand at this point only because there is no perfect way to run a country, every country thrives with its own system. For one country, communism may work, but in another country, it doesn't. It all depends on the structure of a nation. If the government has beneficial ways to run a nation and the people are in agreement, then socialism is the way to go. However, if the people solely want themselves to make the decisions and leave the government out of the picture, then by all means, go for communism. Every country is different, just like every human being, so it isn't right to to say something is bad and something is good, it all depends on you. Some argue that communism/socialism is good; whereas others say that capitalism is the best. The only way I approve of communism/socialism is if a country that has established that ideology is thriving and progressing. In the end, I predict that communism/socialism will overpower capitalism only because throughout history, capitalist societies have had a recurring theme of the bourgeoisie abusing their power. Instances have continually happened during the Industrial Revolution because the bourgeoisie would only care about themselves, and not the conditions that their workers are in. The importance of this shows that people go for equality, and a majority of people want that, so communism/socialism is the best chance of achieving it.

-Socialism-Factors of production are owned by the government. Communism-Factors of production are owned by the people. Capitalism-Factors of production are owned by private individuals. Bourgeoisie-Factory owners. Industrial Revolution-Time period where there was an advancement in old technology.

Chris Ramos
Per. 3

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