Sickle Cell Anemia

Mychala Schulz and Jessie Foster

                    WHAT IS IT?
-Body makes crescent-shaped red blood cells that quickly die out after 10-20 days

     WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?
-Genetically inherited from genes provided by both parents
-Only one gene does not cause the disease, but that person has sickle cell trait

  WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?
-Fatigue (most common)
-Shortness of Breath
-Dizziness
-Headaches
-Coldness in hands/feet

WHAT ARE THE DIAGNOSTIC TESTS?
-Blood test to check for hemoglobin S
-Amniotic fluid test on an unborn baby

          HOW COMMON IS IT?

-Affects 90,000 to 100,000 Americans
-1 in 500 African-American births
-1 in 36,000 Latin American births

   HOW CAN YOU PREVENT IT?
-Cannot be prevented because it is caused by inherited genes
-Blood test can  determine if a couple can be at risk for a sickle cell baby

       RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS
- the risk of inheriting sickle cell anemia comes down to your genetics
-sickle cell anemia can lead to complications such as: strokes, acute chest syndrome (chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing), pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure), organ damage, blindness, skin ulcers, gallstones, priaprism

 CURRENT TREATMENT OPTIONS
- Medications used to treat:
Antibiotic- penicillin- helps prevent infections
Pain-relieving medications
Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea)-hydroxyurea reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions
- Vaccinations to prevent infection
- Red blood cell transfusions- can increase the number of normal red blood cells in circulation, helping to relieve anemia
- Supplemental Oxygen - breathing supplemental oxygen through a breathing mask adds oxygen to the blood and helps you breathe easier
-Stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant) - recommended only for people who have significant symptoms

                   WORKS CITED
-"Sickle Cell Anemia." Treatments and Drugs. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015 <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell-anemia/basics/treatment/con-20019348>.
- "Sickle Cell Anemia." Complications. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell-anemia/basics/complications/con-20019348>.
- "Sickle Cell Anemia." Risk Factors. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2015. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell-anemia/basics/risk-factors/con-20019348.
-"What Is Sickle Cell Anemia?" National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 28 Sept. 2014. Web. 10 Feb. 2015.

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