Qing Dynasty Bureaucrat; manage trades and merchants

Qing dynasty government used tax system and salt trade to maintain its authority.

By the early 1600s, Ming dynasty slowly degenerated and Manchus pressed the Great Wall with force. Manchus rapidly seized the whole continent of China, and after they conquered Beijing in 1644, they established Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, Qing reigned over most of Tibet and central Asia, its population increased from 140 million to 300 million, industries, especially handicraft industries, improved so much, and opened the gates for foreign merchants. Chinese merchants, at that time, excitedly growed becasue of a vast China market and some foreign trades. Qing government blocked merchants' power before their power overcame government's authority.

First, Qing government monopolied salt trade. There are a lot of trades such as silver trade or silk trade, but salt trade was the most significant trade. The reason is that salt is the essential ingredient for everyday meals. I think there are lots of reasons for monopolying salt trade. One of the reasons was to prevent the situation that merchants monopolied salt trade. Qing government created licensing system, which required a lot of licenses for any given place, and encouraged competitions between merchants to avoid monopoly.

Second, government transformed tax system little bit which led to a development of economy and finance of Qing government. Because of impressive advancement of merchants, most of merchants gained tons of money that we could not imagine. Their social position elevated and their wealth was almost equivalent to government's wealth. To protect government's finance and decreased their wealth, tax systems changed into different way. Taxes should turned into money form, and paper money developed. Farmers should sublease and lease their lands.

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