ANCIENT EGYPT

by: Kayla Myers

egypt

Egypt"s climate is extremely dry. It hardly ever rains, so the ground is parched and there are few plants and trees. When the Ancient Egyptians buried their dead, they often don't rot because of the dry earth and the few bacteria in the soil. Instead the bodies of the buried gradually dried up and turned into mummies.

STABLE FOOD SUPPLY

Water was important to maintain a stable food supply. Ancient Egyptians relied heavily on the Nile river. They were expert fisherman and farmers. They learned irrigation to use the water to grow their crops, and also to provide water for their daily use, and for their animals and livestock. In such a dry climate, the Nile River helped the Egyptians to keep their soil was moist and more fertile. In other areas, farming was too difficult because of the cold temperatures and rocky land.

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

The head of the Ancient Egyptian government was the Pharaoh. He or she owned everything and everyone in the land. Below the Pharaoh, were the next two highest classes in the social pyramid (i.e., government officials and priests). These groups were also powerful and highly respected. Their jobs was to assist the pharaoh in his or her role as supreme ruler of Egypt.

Here is an example of the social pyramid:

WRITTEN LANGUAGE

Scribes were Egypt's official writers and record keepers. Students typically spent 12 years or more learning Hieroglyphics- the symbols used in Egyptian system of writing. Hieroglyphics could be written in any direction. It had no vowels or punctuation. It just had to look like art.

THE ARTS

Below the scribes on the social pyramid were the artisans. Egyptians were highly skilled labors who created some of the most beautiful art objects in ancient world. Artisans worked in large groups to complete engravings, painting, and hieroglyphics. Stone carvings was demanding and time consuming work. Carvers often worked with hard rock, such as granite.

RELIGION

The Ancient Egyptians believed in many Gods. RA { sometimes spelled RE} was the ancient Egyptian god of the sun. He was believed to be the most important and supreme ruler of all the Gods. He was said to have created all forms of life.

ANUBIS was an important God. The Egyptians thought he was important throughout the process of getting a dead person ready to be buried. They also thought of Anubis as the god who weighed your heart to see if you were good or bad after you died.

OSIRIS was the ruler of the underworld the god of the dead. He was the husband of Isis and father of Horus. Osiris was drawn as a mummified man with a feathered headdress.

HORUS was the god of the sky. The Pharaoh was thought to be the living version of Horus. He was drawn as a man with the head of a hawk.

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