By. Jessica Lee
There are three general functions of the nervous system in man and animals. The first function is that they sense specific informations about the external and internal conditions. The second function is that they intergrate those informations which means the understanding of the information coming from the eyes. The third function is that it issues commands for responses from the muscles or glands. Summarization of these functions are that basically the nervous system provides us the ability to perceive, understand and react to environmental events. This is why the nervous system is extremely important for human bodies.
Organs/Individual roles/specialized cell
The central nervous system is made up of brain and spinal cord. In peripheral nervous system, the nerves pick up information about the body and send messages through the spinal cord to the brain. The brain sends out messages to the peripheral nerves so they may control our actions. These outside nerves receive messages from the brain and control the heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing and all of the body functions.
Neurons are electrically excitable nerve cells that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling. They carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production. They have special cell parts called dendrites and axons. Dendrites bring electrical signals to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that the nerve contains and their job is to transmit or carry messages from one nerve to another. Bipolar neurons have two processes extending from the cell body. Pseudounipolar cells have 2 axons rather than an axon and dendrite. Multipolar neurons have many processes that extend from the cell body.
Brain is made up of three parts the cerebrum which controls thinking and memory, the cerebellum which controls balance and coordination, and the medulla oblongata which controls involuntary actions such as heartbeat, breathing and digestion. Spinal cord is the major large set of nerves running down the spine and it is protected by the spinal column or vertebrae.
Nervous and endocrine systems are responsible for the control and coordination of the body's regulatory mechanisms.