GRAMMAR FOR INTERMEDIATE LEVEL: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
WE USE THE GERUND (VERB+ING)
- As the subject of a sentence
Smoking is forbidden in all public places
Nowadays getting a good job can be difficult
- After prepositions and phrasal verbs
She’s talking about leaving her job and moving to another country
They are talking about going on holiday to Spain
- After some verbs: avoid, can’t help, admit, love, like, dislike, enjoy, consider, deny, feel like, finish, keep, don’t mind, practise, prefer, spend time, stop, suggest, recommend, miss ( Note: some of them can also be followed by infinitive)
The negative of the gerund is: Not + Verb+ing
I spent some time studying phrasal verbs yesterday
She doesn’t mind getting up early in the morning
She is considering not buying that house
WE USE THE INFINITIVE
- To express a reason or a purpose
I went to the supermarket to get some milk
My son is saving money to buy a surfboard
- After adjectives
It is important to be on time
She finds it easy to speak in English
- After Wh-words
I don’t know how to do it
Mary doesn’t like being told what to do
- After some verbs: want, ask, mean, manage, would like, agree, need, offer, forget, decide, try, hope, (can’t) afford, expect, help, learn, plan, pretend, refuse, seem, promise, remember,allow
NOTE: some of them can also be followed by gerund.
The negative infinitive is Not to+ verb
They are planning to adopt a baby
He pretended not to know
I can’t afford to buy that car
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO
The verbs “make” and “let” are followed by the infinitive without “to”. The verb “help” can be followed by the to infinitive or by the bare infinitive.
Can you help me (to) study maths?
Let me go
I am glad my parents made me study a university degree.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE OR THE GERUND WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING.
The verbs start, begin and continue can be followed by either infinitive or gerund with no difference in meaning
The baby started to cry/ The baby started crying
It began to snow/ It began snowing
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE OR THE GERUND WITH DIFFERENCE IN MEANING
You attempt to do something. The action is difficult and you may or may not succeed. Most of the time you don´t.
I tried to warn him but it was too late
I tried to change the wheel but my hands were too cold.
TRY + GERUND.
To experiment, to try a new experience to do something and see what will happen . It is also used to suggest something.
I tried sending her flowers, writing her letters, giving her presents, but she still wouldn't speak to me.
If you have a headache, why don't you try taking an aspirin?
REMEMBER + INFINITIVE.
The meaning is “don’t forget to do it”
Remember to send him an email
REMEMBER + GERUND
The meaning is “I have a memory of it”
I remember closing the door before leaving. I don't know why it’s open now.