Cold War: Space Race (1955-1975)
After WW2, The USA and Russia believed that rocket tech was important to their military, so they started a sort of a race to see who could get the best technology into space first in 1955. Russia beat the USA in putting the first successful artificial satellite in orbit around Earth, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957. Russia again beat the USA in putting a man in orbit around the planet on April 12, 1961, almost a year before the US successfully put a man around orbit on February 20, 1962.
Who: The USA and the USSR(Russia)
What: The race to space and getting the best technology in the great beyond.
Where: The USA, Space, Russia, And the Moon.
Why: Because they both believed that having the best rocket tech in space was good for their military.
When: 1955-July of 1975
In 1969, when the US was embarrassed by Russia beating them in the space race, so they launched Apollo 11 to land on the moon, and it successfully landed With its crew, Including Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins.
After the Moon landings, NASA and USSR's space programs decided to work together to share their ideas for better space things, (they made the ISS after the Soviet Union collapsed), and the Soyuz space craft to get to things in space safer and faster than before.