9.2: Intellectual Development in the First Year of Life
Riley, Hannah, Abbey
During the first year of a baby's life, growth occurs in many areas. These areas include size, intelligence, motor skills, social skills, and personality.
Early Learning Abilities
Signs of Intellectual Growth
- Remembering experiences- information from the senses can be interpreted in light of past experiences; perception...the ability to learn from sensory information. Ex: A two or three month old baby may stop crying when someone enters the room because the baby anticipates being picked up.
- Making Associations- associating a caregiver with comfort
- Understanding Cause & Effect- one action resulting in another action or condition. Ex: Sucking causes milk to flow. As babies motor skills develop, cause-and-effect learning changes.
- Paying Attention- growth of attention span; how long someone can focus on a task without getting bored. Infants with above average intelligence have a shorter attention span.
Stimulating the Senses
- Talking, reading, singing and humming are good ways to vary and stimulate an infants hearing
- Ex: A baby's senses of touch and taste are routinely stimulated as he or she is changed and fed.
- cuddling and rocking are ways to build a baby's security and sense of trust
- Concept- general category of objects and information
- Children learn words and concepts by using these 3 principles:
1) thinking labels are for whole objects, not parts
---ex: "dog" means the WHOLE dog, not the dog's nose or tail
2) labels apply to the group to which the individual objects belong
---ex: child may refer to any four-legged creature as "dog"
3) an object can only have one label
---ex: "mommy" and "she" can mean the same person
Jean Piaget's Periods of Learning
- lasts from birth to about age 2
- babies learn through their senses and actions
- it is important to stimulate baby because they form more dendrites so neurons can establish pathways
- object permanence- objects will continue to exist even when out of sight
- 6 stages in sensorimotor period:
- birth to 1 month: practices inborn reflexes--does not understand self as a separate person
- 1-4 months: combines 2 or more reflexes--develops hand/mouth coordination
- 4-8 months: acts intentionally to produce results--improves hand/eye coordination
- 8-12 months: begins to solve problems--finds partially hidden objects--imitates others
- 12-18 months: finds hidden objects--explores/experiments--understand that objects exist independently
- 18-24 months: solves problems thinking through sequences--thinks using symbols and symbolic thinking (makes it possible to read)...use of words and numbers to stand for ideas--imaginative thinking and imaginative play...pretending
- 2-7 years
- children live in the "now" and think in terms of their own activities
- 7-11 years
- can think logically but learn best through experience
- capable of abstract thinking