Chemical Bonding

The mutual attraction by the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bond together.

Atoms in nature want to have low potential energy, or stored energy, but actually have really high potential energy. Atoms lower their potential energy by bonding, which makes the atom more stable.

There are three types of bonds: Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic bonds.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding happens when anions and cations are attracted to each other. Only metals and nonmetals can be bonded to each other in this way.

Characteristics of ionic bonds include:

- A high melting point

- Dissolves in water

- Electricity isn't conducted through solids

- Electricity is conducted through the dissolved form and liquid

The electronegativity of the atom can help decide what kind of bond the atom has. When the element with the lesser electronegativity is subtracted from the element with the greater electronegativity,  the type of bond is found using the Ionic Character graph. The greater the difference in electronegativity the more ionic it is.

Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonding happens when electrons are shared between two atoms.  Covalent only occurs when two metals are bonded together. There are two types of covalent bonds:

Polar - the electronegativity difference falls between  0.3 and 1.7 on the Ionic Character chart. This means that atoms with polar covalent charges have uneven charges.

Nonpolar - the electronegativity difference falls between 0 and 0.3 on the Ionic Character chart. the electrons are shared equally between the atoms, therefore the charges are equal.

Characteristics of covalent bonds include:

- The substance might dissolve, depending on the polarity

- A very low melting point

- Never conducts electricity

Metallic Bonds

Metallic bonds are formed between two metals only.

Characteristics of metallic bonds:

- Always shiny

- Doesn't dissolve

- High melting point

- Always conducts electricity.

Octet Rule- everything wants eight electrons except boron and all elements in the fourth period.

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