Chapter 12 Vocabulary

The smallest structural or functional unit of the organism.

The semipearmeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.

A rigid layer of polysaccharides of a cell lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells.

any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells.

a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.

  1. An autotroph or "producer", is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions.
  1. A heterotroph is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth. Heterotrophs can be further divided based on how they obtain energy; if the heterotroph uses light for energy.

A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles.

  1. A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.

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