Chapter 12 Vocabulary
The smallest structural or functional unit of the organism.
The semipearmeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
A rigid layer of polysaccharides of a cell lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells.
any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells.
a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.
- An autotroph or "producer", is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions.
- A heterotroph is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth. Heterotrophs can be further divided based on how they obtain energy; if the heterotroph uses light for energy.
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles.
- A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.