Worcester v. Georgia, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Trail of Tears, and the Seminole War are all related in that they address the controversial topic: the removal of the Indians. In Worcester v. Georgia, the Georgia legislature declared the cherokee council illegal and asserted its own power over Indian affairs. The Cherokees appealed to the Supreme Court who ruled in favor of protecting Indian rights but Jackson ignored the courts ruling. In response to Worcester v. Georgia, Jackson issued the Indian Removal Act of 1830 because he felt obligated to address the issue. The Removal Act transplanted the Indian tribes from east of the Mississippi. Intended to be voluntary, the Indian Removal Act killed countless Indians on forced marches. As a result of the Indian Removal Act, the Trail of Tears formed. Jackson and his military troops forced about 15,000 Cherokees from their homeland to Indian territory in present day Oklahoma. There was freezing weather and inadequate food supplies causing about 4,000 Indians to die on the 116 day journey. In response to the forced migrations to Oklahoma, the Seminole Indians and some runaway slaves waged a bitter guerrilla war from 1837-1842, known as the Seminole War. The Seminoles killed 1500 Americans but eventually their leader Osceola was captured by American soldiers. Some Seminoles fled to the everglades but the majority were forced to migrate to Indian territory. All of these events occurred during Jackson's presidency and they highlight the continuous conflicts between whites and Indians.

Trail of Tears

This image is relevant to this topic because it shows the multitude of Indians forcibly removed from their land in the Trail of Tears, after the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed. In the image mothers and their children are huddled together, forced to march thousands of miles among 15,000 other Indians with few of their belongings. It portrays how devastating the Trail of Tears was in American history for Cherokees and other Indian tribes.

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Andrew Jackson forced the Indians to migrate out of new western lands. He unconstitutionally forced the Indians out of their rightful territory because he felt that western expansion was for the whites and not for the Indians. As he pushed the Indians farther west into present day Oklahoma, he expanded white territories from Tennessee to Louisiana.

"It will place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. By opening the whole territory between Tennessee on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of the whites it will incalculably strengthen the SW frontier and render the adjacent States strong enough to repel future invasions without remote aid. It will relieve the whole State of Mississippi and the western part of Alabama of Indian occupancy, and enable those States to advance rapidly in population, wealth, and power." - Andrew Jackson

Conclusion:    When Napoleon Bonaparte sold the Louisiana territory in 1803, United States had a plethora of lands to the west. During Jackson's presidency, Democrats were committed to western expansion. Along with expanding west, came the confrontation of Indians. Jackson was committed to push Indians farther west to open up lands for the whites. Jackson's actions of ignoring the Supreme Court ruling further separated Americans by forming two different political parties. Jackson's opponents condemned him a "King Andrew I" and formed the Whig party- a name chosen to recollect 18th century British and Revolutionary American opposition to the monarchy.

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