Phases of the Moon

Kettner's Science Class


The Phases of the Moon

Moon's effects

Moon Terms

Waxing moon-

the moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

Waning moon-

the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon (so called because its illuminated area is decreasing).


convex at both edges, as the moon when more than half full.


a shape resembling a segment of a ring tapering to points at the ends. The figure of the moon in its first or last quarter, resembling a segment of a ring tapering to points at the ends.


Moon patterns

A waxing moon's pattern starts off with a new moon and progressively goes from a waxing crescent to a waxing quarter to a waxing gibbous until the moon is full.

A waning moon's pattern starts off with a full moon and progressively goes from a waning gibbous to a waning quarter to a waning crescent until the moon is a new moon.

Lunar cycle

a cycle of 235 synodic months, very nearly equal to 19 years, after which the new moon occurs on the same day of the year as at the beginning of the cycle with perhaps a shift of one day, depending on the number of leap years in the cycle.

Earth's Seasons/ Eclipses

Nicolai Copernicus (1473-1543) changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the sun, not the Earth, was the center of the solar system.

During the year, different hemishperes are exposed to different amounts of sunlight. The different amount of sunlight rays, change the seasons between summer, spring, winter, and fall.

Even though the sun is closer to Earth in the winter it is still colder than summer, because we recieve less dense radiation in winter than when it is summer, which causes it to be colder.

Eclipses mark the change in seasons. But moon phases change the change in days.

When the Earth is turned away from the sun, we have night because there are no sunlight rays shining on that side of the Earth. When the Earth is facing the sun, there are direct rays on the Earth, which is day.

The time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).

Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.



Alfred Wegener was a German meteorologist and geophysicist who developed the first theory of continental drift and came up with the idea that a supercontinent known as Pangaea existed on the Earth millions of years ago.


coming closer together, especially in characteristics or ideas.


tending to be different or develop in different directions

Transform Boundaries

is where two of the floats - two tectonic plates - side alongside each other.

The Plate of Juan de Fuca is off the coast of Washinton

This subduction zone is where the Juan de Fuca oceanic plate meets the continental part of the North American Plate in the Pacific Northwest. New ocean floor is being created offshore of Washington and Oregon at the Juan de Fuca Ridge where seafloor spreading occurs between the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates. As the Juan de Fuca Ridge moves away from the ridge, material wells up along the spreading ridge creating new oceanic crust. A very different type of magma rises beneath the North America Plate forming the Cascade Range. Therefore effecting the earthquake percentage of the Cascade area and effecting the growth time and rate of the Cascade range.

Convection currents in the magma drive plate tectonics. This is because covection curretns use the transfer of heat by the movement of heat particles from warmer to a cooler area.

Rift Zone

A rift zone is a system of related, narrow structural depressions between parallel faults. Rift Zones on earth are usually found in oceans and in depressions in valleys and low evelation areas.

Subjuction Zone

the process by which collision of theearth's crustal plates results in one plate's beingdrawn down or overridden by another, localizedalong the juncture (subduction zone) of twoplates.

Scab lands

The Channeled Scablands are a barren, relatively soil-free landscape in eastern Washington, eroided clean by a flood unleashed when a large glacial lake drained. The scabland was created where the Ice Age floods accelerated across the tilted surface of the Palouse slope, causing massive erosion.



Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.


Metaporphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".


Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Sedimentary rocks- clastic sedimentary rocks such as breccia, conglomerate, sandstone and shale, that are formed from mechanical weathering debris.

Metamorphic- foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure.

Igneous- intrusive igneous rocks such as diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface.


The division of catorgories, layers and groups into specific "classes", upper class, middle class and lower class.

Estimating Landforms

Landform's age can be estimated through the layers of rocks. For example when there is stratification in a rock form you can tell by the number of layers. It is the same with fossils, however deeply embedded the fossil is, it can be shown when it was fossilizes through the stratification layers.


When layers of sedimentary rocks have blocks of horizontal sedimentary it could have been caused by the Ice Age or a rockslide, something that caused all the rocks to pile up at one time creating a larger block in a sedimentary rock. When younger layers of rock are built underneath older layers of rock it can be caused because of older layers breaking off and being pushed up or fallen upon new layers.

They die and their skeletons/shells build up layers. They dig holes in the ground allowing water to run into the ground. They build dams creating lakes. The eat vegetation promoting erosion. They send roots into cracks that can break down mountains. And then there are all the things that humans do.

Cells! #BrainCellsInUse

What is a cell?

the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

what is the difference?

Plant and animal cells have several differences and similarities. Animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts but plant cells do. Animal cells are round and irregular in shape while plant cells have rectangular shapes.

An animal cell contains membrane bound nucleus, it also contains other membrane bound cellular organelles. These cellular organelles carry out specific functions that are necessary for the normal functioning of the cell. Animal cells lack cell wall, a large vacuole and plastids. Since an animal cell lacks a cell wall, the shape and size of the animal cells are mostly irregular. The constituents of animal cells are structures like centrioles, cilia and flagella and lysosomes.

A plant cell constitute of membrane bound nucleus and many cellular structures. These organelles carry out functions that are necessary for the proper functioning and survival of the cell. The cell organelles of the plant are enclosed by a cell wall and cell membrane. The constituents of the cell are suspended in the cytoplasm or cytosol.

Functions of muscle, nerve, bone, cartilage, secretory, epithelial, adipose, and blood cells

Muscle- Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion.

Nerve- Your nervous system contains millions of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are highly specialised to transmit messages from one part of your body to another.

Bone- They resorb (dissolve) the bone. There is also the osteoblast family, which consists of osteoblasts that form bone, osteocytes that help maintain bone, and lining cells that cover the surface of the bone.

Cartilage-Reduces friction at joints.By virtue of the smooth surface of hyaline cartilage, it provides a sliding area which reduces friction, thus facilitating bone movement. It ensures movement and supports the c-shaped cartilagenous rings in the windpipes (trachea and bronchi) assist in keeping those tubes open.

Secretory- The release of proteins or other molecules from a secretory vesicle is most often stimulated by a nervous or hormonal signal.

Epithelial- The Epithelial cell acts as the barrier between the outside world’s contaminants and the body, these cells replicate often to replace damaged or dead cells.

Adipose- Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body.

Blood- The three basic functions of blood cells are to transport oxygen throughout the body, fight infection and to stop bleeding.

Tissue and Organs

The cells in our bodies make up tissues, groups of the same kind of cells with similar structure and function. Groups of different types of tissues are arranged together to form organs. Organs are grouped into systems depending on their make up of tissue.

Digestive System

The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the body and for making use of food to keep the body healthy. The digestive system includes the salivary glands, mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The digestive organs are joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus.

Circulatory System

The system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands. The functions of the circulatory system is  to transport gases, like oxygen from the lungs to cells around the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.Transport nutrients like glucose. Transport wastes from cells to organs that play the role of eliminating them. It contains cells that fight infections and defend against foreign bodies. Maintains the pH levels and ionic concentration of fluids in the body. And helps maintain the body temperature, this is especially important in warm blooded animals like humans.

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is a group of organs that supply the body with oxygen. The system consists of the nose, mouth, throat, lungs, and diaphragm. The respiratory system's primary function is to supply oxygen to all the parts of your body.

Paramecium is a ciliate protozoan. Ciliates’ bodies are covered with fine cytoplasmic hair-like structures called cilia. Flickering movements of the cilia propel the organism through the water and also create feeding currents. Paramecium is a ciliate. In describing its structure, comparisons will be made with amoeba. Unlike amoeba, paramecium has a distinct and permanent shape and certain areas of cytoplasm, (cell organelles), are specialised to carry out specific functions.


1)The two genotypes in the punnett square are the G and g.

2)There is a 3/4ths chance that there will be a green flower and a 1/4th chance that there will be a yellow flower.

3)There are two out of four homozigous outcomes: GG gg

4)There are two out of four hetrozigous outcomes: Gg Gg

5)The reason the characteristics are more diverse for sexual reproduction is because there is more than one parent giving the offspring there genes so there is more of a possiblity while asexual is identical to the single parent.


The process in which an animal and/or organisms has to change to match its needs for its enviornment.


The process through which animals and/or organisms change in shape or form from a previous era.


A group of a certain animal or organism that contain smaller or similar groups able to reproduce.


something that is inheridited by an offspring changing the offspring's characteristics.


Able or capable of having a certain gene pool.

Sexual reproduction

Reproduction that involves two parents with different genes.

Asexual reproduction

Reproduction that only involves one parent and the offspring isidentical to that parent.

The value of Sexual reproduction

It combines the different parents genetic material resulting in unique offsring that is different from each parent. Also when given more genetic material the population is not limited and comtiues to flourish nad grow.

There Must Be An Eco In Here....
#EcoFlow #TackkThursday

5 types of ecosystems...

Terrestrail Ecosystems are the seven major ecosystems of the world.

Tropical Rain Forest

  • Precipitation - 250cm/year
  • Little temp. variation/abundant moisture
  • Contains more species than other biomes.


Precipitation 90-150cm/year

Open, widely spaced trees, seasonal rainfall

Parts of Africa, South America & Australia


Precipitation 20cm/year

Dry, sparce vegetation; scattered grasses

Parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, North America

Temperate Grasslands

Precipitation: 10-60cm/year

Rich soil; tall dense grasses

Central North America; Central Asia

Deciduous forests


Warm summers, cool winters

Europe; NE United States;Eastern Canada

Conferious forests


Short growing season, cold winters.

Northern Asia;Northern North America



Open; wind swept; dry; ground always frozen

Far northern Asia; Northern North America

Define using Context Clues


A decomposer is an organism that decomposes organic material.


A consumer is a living thing that consumes or "eats" food.


An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.


A producer is an organism that is part of the first level of a food chain.

food chain-

A food chain is a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.


Biotic means of, relating to, or resulting from living things, especially in their ecological relations.


Abioctic means physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms.


Adaptation is a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.

Examples of biotic factors

Some examples of biotic factors includel; plants, animals, fungi, and any other living things. In a wetland ecosystem examples of biotic factors are; turtlehead flowers, water, trees, competition, bacteria, plaintain.

Examples of aboitic factors

Abiotic factors found in aquatic ecosystems are things like water depth, pH, sunlight, turbidity, salinity, available nutrients and dissolved oxygen. Abiotic factors found in wetland ecosystems are sunlight, air, climate, soil, water, rocks, and temperature.

Energy enters the ecosystem food chain in the form of sunlight.

The arrows in question 11 represent the connection between the first form of energy and how that energy moves along in the food chain.

When one animal changes, all the other animals are affected too. For example if a type of fly were to die or change enviornments the fish and frogs who eat flys would not be able to survive and so on and so forth.

The grasses and other plants in a wetland act as a filter for the water, removing contaminants, cleaning up the water and the soil holding the plants acts like a sponge, sops up pollutants.

Wetlands in the case of a flood act like a bigger sponge, able to take in more and more water when a flood takes place.

Wetland plants hold the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents. Making the chances of erosion drastically lessen.

Wetlands have filtered, clean water for animals and organisms. Also wetlands have a large mass of vegetaion provided for animals to eat. Wetlands also tend to have a warmer climate for a larger variety of species to live in.


  • Erosion control
  • Fisheries habitat
  • Flood control
  • Ground water recharge and discharge
  • Natural filter
  • Rare species habitat
  • Recreation

Have a wonderful spring break! Enjoy it!

Comment Stream

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