Eco systems


Five different Eco Systems

5 types of eco systems are Terrestrial eco systems, The forest eco systems, The desert eco system, The grass land eco system, The mountain eco system

Terrestrial-can be found anywhere apart from heavily saturated places

The forest eco system- They are the ecosystems in which an abundance of flora, or plants, is seen so they have a big number of organisms which live in relatively small space. Therefore, in forest ecosystems the density of living organisms is quite high. A small change in this ecosystem could affect the whole balance, effectively bringing down the whole ecosystem. You could see a fantastic diversity in the fauna of the ecosystems.

The desert eco system-Desert ecosystems are located in regions that receive an annual rainfall less than 25. They occupy about 17 percent of all the land on our planet. Due to the extremely high temperature, low water availability and intense sunlight, fauna and flora are scarce and poorly developed. The vegetation is mainly shrubs, bushes, few grasses and rare trees. The stems and leaves of the plants are modified in order to conserve water as much as possible. The best known desert ones are the succulents such as the spiny leaved cacti. The animal organisms include insects, birds, camels, reptiles all of which are adapted to the desert (xeric) conditions.

The grass land eco system-Grasslands are located in both the tropical and temperate regions of the world though the ecosystems vary slightly. The area mainly comprises grasses with a little number of trees and shrubs. The main vegetation includes grasses, plants and legumes that belong to the composite family. A lot of grazing animals, insectivores and herbivores inhabit the grasslands. The two main kinds of grasslands ecosystems are:

  1. Savanna: The tropical grasslands are dry seasonally and have few individual trees. They support a large number of predators and grazers.
  2. Prairies: It is temperate grassland, completely devoid of large shrubs and trees. Prairies could be categorized as mixed grass, tall grass and short grass prairies.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The mountain eco system- Mountain land provides a scattered and diverse array of habitats where a large number of animals and plants can be found. At the higher altitudes, the harsh environmental conditions normally prevail, and only the treeless alpine vegetation can survive. The animals that live there have thick fur coats for prevention from cold and hibernation in the winter months. Lower slopes are commonly covered with coniferous forests.


Decomposer-are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, carry out the natural process of decomposition. Like herbivores and predators

Consumer-a person who purchases goods and services for personal use

Eco system-a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

Producer-a person, company, or country that makes, grows, or supplies goods or commodities for sale.

Food chain-a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.

Biotic-of, relating to, or resulting from living things, especially in their ecological relations

Abiotic-physical rather than biological; not derived from living organisms.

Adaption-the action or process of adapting or being adapted.

Some exmaples of biotic features and abiotic features in the wetlands are Abiotic factors are sunlight, air, climate, soil, water, rocks, and temperature. Biotic factors are turtlehead flowers, water, trees, butterflires, competition, bacteria, carrying capacity, plaintain, ash, and the false foxglove.

Wet land Food Chain

Energy enters this food chain by the sun.

The arrows in #11 shows where the food chain goes next

If one thing dies then the rest will die because it messes up the sytem

Wet Lands

Wet lands positivly affect water quility because Wetlands once made up 25 percent of Indiana. Many of these 5.6 million acres were located in the fertile farmground of northern Indiana. Early in the 19th century, landowners began using open ditches and tiles to drain large areas of wetlands. They then converted the drained soil to agricultural production. Since then, nearly 86 percent of Indiana's wetlands have been drained or filled.

Wetlands help flood protection because Wetlands function as natural sponges that trap and slowly release surface water, rain, snowmelt, groundwater and flood waters. Trees, root mats, and other wetland vegetation also slow the speed of flood waters and distribute them more slowly over the floodplain. This combined water storage an braking action lowers flood heights and reduces erosion. Wetlands within and downstream of urban areas are particularly valuable, counteracting the greatly increased rate and volume of surface- water runoff from pavement and buildings. The holding capacity of wetlands helps control floods and prevents water logging of crops. Preserving and restoring wetlands, together with other water retention, can often provide the level of flood control otherwise provided by expensive dredge operations and levees. The bottomland hardwood- riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River once stored at least 60 days of floodwater. Now they store only 12 days because most have been filled or drained.

The ability of wetlands to control erosion is so valuable that some states are restoring wetlands in coastal areas to buffer the storm surges from hurricanes and tropical storms. Wetlands at the margins of lakes, rivers, bays, and the ocean protect shorelines and stream banks against erosion. Wetland plants hold the soil in place with their roots, absorb the energy of waves, and break up the flow of stream or river currents.

More than one-third of the United States' threatened and endangered species live only in wetlands, and nearly half use wetlands at some point in their lives. Many other animals and plants depend on wetlands for survival. Estuarine and marine fish and shellfish, various birds, and certain mammals must have coastal wetlands to survive. Most commercial and game fish breed and raise their young in coastal marshes and estuaries. Menhaden, flounder, sea trout, spot, croaker, and striped bass are among the more familiar fish that depend on coastal wetlands. Shrimp, oysters, clams, and blue and Dungeness crabs likewise need these wetlands for food, shelter, and breeding grounds. For many animals and plants, like wood ducks, muskrat, cattails, and swamp rose, inland wetlands are the only places they can live. Beaver may actually create their own wetlands. For others, such as striped bass, peregrine falcon, otter, black bear, raccoon, and deer, wetlands provide important food, water, or shelter. Many of the U.S. breeding bird populations-- including ducks, geese, woodpeckers, hawks, wading birds, and many song-birds-- feed, nest, and raise their young in wetlands. Migratory waterfowl use coastal and inland wetlands as resting, feeding, breeding, or nesting grounds for at least part of the year. Indeed, an international agreement to protect wetlands of international importance was developed because some species of migratory birds are completely dependent on certain wetlands and would become extinct if those wetlands were destroyed.

Benefits of Wetlands

  • Erosion control. Wetland vegetation reduces erosion along lakes and stream banks by reducing forces associated with wave action.
  • Fisheries habitat. Many species of fish utilize wetland habitats for spawning, food sources, or protection.
  • Flood control. Wetlands can slow runoff water, minimizing the frequency streams and rivers reach catastrophic flood levels.
  • Ground water recharge and discharge. Some wetlands serve as a source of ground water recharge. By detaining surface waters that would otherwise quickly flow to distant lakes or rivers, the water can percolate into the ground and help ensure long-term supplies of quality ground water. Some wetlands are ground-water discharge areas; they receive ground water even during dry periods. This helps reduce the impact of short-term droughts on rivers and streams.
  • Natural filter. By trapping and holding water, wetlands store nutrients and pollutants in the soil, allowing cleaner water to flow in to the body of water beyond or below the wetland. Vegetation, like cattails, can absorb some of the pollutants that remain in the soil. Wetlands also moderate water flows, providing time for sediments to settle out before the water is released to other wetlands, lakes, or streams. Less sediment means clearer waters and a better environment for aquatic life.
  • Rare species habitat. 43 per cent of threatened or endangered species in the U.S. live in or depend on wetlands. This includes plants and animals.
  • Recreation. Wetlands are great places to canoe, hunt, fish, or explore and enjoy nature.
  • Source of income. Wetlands provide economic commodities such as cranberries and fish and provide spatial amenities to developments.
  • Wildlife habitat. Many animals depend on wetlands for homes and resting spots. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, aquatic insects and certain mammals need wetlands as a place for their young to be born and grow.
  • Education. Wetlands provide ideal locations for classroom ecological studies and a focus for art.

Comment Stream

2 years ago
2 years ago

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