In the phosphorus cycle, rock erodes into soil. Then seaweed take in the phosphorus. Then fish eat the seaweed. Fish then decompose and goes back into the soil and turns into rock.
In the carbon cycle, carbon goes into plants and comes out as oxygen through photosynthesis. We breathe in the oxygen and turn it back into carbon. Fossil fuels also take in carbon.
In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen-fixing bacteria turns atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen for plants. Animals eat the plants. Decomposers break down the dead plants and animals. They take the nitrogen and turn it into ammonium. Nitrifying bacteria turns it into nitrites. Then nitrifying bacteria turns it into nitrates. After denitrifying bacteria turns it back into atmospheric nitrogen.
In the water cycle, water evaporates and condenses into clouds. Then rains falls (precipitation). Then the water eventually goes back to the ocean either as runoff or as groundwater.
The farther up a a food chain the less energy there is. Energy gets lost in when energy gets transferred.