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# Activity:Visions of the Future

I watched a video that talked about how it was developed.I think it going to a long

month for me to complete this course . I will have to keep a  journal about every lesson i

will be doing.I Also looks easy some someways .My friend have done it and said its really easy just a little bit of copying and pasting .I think it will be easy to if i just keep my mind on it .

Process

You are going to identify a problem affecting the world today, and then you’ll create a vision of the future based on your chosen problem. You can choose whatever you want.Once you’ve picked out the problem, write a few sentences that address the following criteria:

1. Provide a short explanation of the problem.

That people are using the street trash cans as there own household trash pens .They leave them all nasty and sloppy someone need a better way on trying to help the community .Because the answer has just became the problem.

2. Explain how you think this problem will affect the world in 100 years.

The world will be over flowed with trash.So much that we wouldn't even know what to do with it .

3. Propose a solution to this problem.

That there should be one big trash can on ever street .So when the trash people come they don't have to clean other others.

# Crash Course Big History:

In this video the Green brothers John and Hank talking about what they think the big history is .It talks about why history is so important.And inform us that it's a big deal.They explain how the world came to be ,and explain step by step what they think the big bang really mean.

# Quiz 1:Welcome to the Big History

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# Power Of Ten (19177)

First, you will need to calculate the distance of the Sun to other planets in our Solar System. If the distance from the Sun to the Earth is 2 feet in your scale model, you will need to calculate the missing distances using the table below. If you like, use the Scale on a String worksheet. When complete, take a look at the Scale on a String answer key to compare your results.

# Quiz 2:

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# 1.2-Origin Stories ,4/13/15

Purpose

In this activity, you will become familiar with the idea of an origin story. Cultures around the world have their own origin stories, ways in which they believe and describe how the Universe came to be. It’s important that you understand that all origin stories should be respected, as they often relate to people’s cultures and beliefs. Big History is another one of these origin stories. Specifically, it is what many consider a modern, scientific origin story.

Process

300 Points for questions
5 questions answered 80% correctly 100 Points for completion Bonus points earned for completing this task

# 1.3-Introduction of Cosmology 4/20/15

This video talked about other life on other plaints .Cosmology is the origin and development of the universe.

1. What are the questions a historian would ask about what happened?

2. What kind of questions would a biologist (or another discipline of your choosing) ask about what happened?

Process

Your job is to assemble the best research team possible to most deeply understand the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.

1. Come up with the single discipline that you think would be best suited to understand the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.

2. Explain what someone from this discipline would know or want to ask about Mt. Vesuvius.

3. Why is your discipline the best for the job?

# Quiz 3 What Are Disciplines

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This video explained ideas about what the sun goes around .

# 1.4-My Big History, 4/28/15

Well to day

Process

Create a timeline of your life, including the major turning points of your life so far. One of these turning points should relate to your community, one to your culture, one to your family, and the rest are up to you. You should aim for at least four of those big changes, and name each one.

Process

Take about 4 minutes to write a "history of you." Set a timer if you have to—you really should make this quick! Stop reading the instructions for this activity now and start writing! After you’ve finished writing, come back to see how many of the following topics you included in your history.

• your time in high school?
• anything that happened over 100 years ago?
• anything that happened over 1,000 years ago?

Also, did you write about anything that is further away than the state you’re currently in? Did you talk about anything that’s further away than the country you’re currently in? What is the most distant place you mentioned?

# Quiz 4 My Big History

20 Points for questions
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# Glossary:What Is Big History ?

All of the following terms appear in this unit. The terms are arranged here in alphabetical order.

astrophysics — The study of the properties and interactions of planets, stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects.

Big Bang — A theory, first articulated in the 1920s, proposing that the Universe started out extremely hot and dense and gradually cooled off as it expanded.

Big History — A unified account of the entire history of the Universe that uses evidence and ideas from many disciplines to create a broad context for understanding humanity; a modern scientific origin story.

complexity — A quality of an object or system that has diverse components precisely arranged in connection with one another (so that new properties emerge which did not exist in the components alone).

cosmology — The study of the Universe on its largest scales, including its origin.

emergent properties — Properties of a complex system that are not present within its parts but that emerge only when those parts are combined.

entropy (the law of) — The natural tendency of all things to move from order to disorder. (Note: Although often called the law of entropy, it is more accurate to refer to it as the second law of thermodynamics.)

Goldilocks Conditions — Specific set of conditions necessary to enable greater complexity. The reference is to the fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears, in which Goldilocks looks for the porridge, chair, and bed that are “just right.”

history — The study of past events.

ingredients — Components that are put together to form something new and more complex.

interdisciplinary approach — An approach to a subject that uses the viewpoints of many different kinds of scholars about the same topic. For instance, Big History relies on information from cosmologists, astrophysicists, geologists, chemists, paleontologists, biologists, anthropologists, and historians, as well as experts in other disciplines, to learn about the past.

origin story — A narrative about the beginning of the Universe and humanity.

religion — A set of beliefs and practices that concern humanity’s relationship with the spiritual, the supernatural, and reality.

scale — Degrees of magnification, or perspective, used to measure time, space, and size.

science — An approach to discovering knowledge about the natural world that relies on testing ideas through observation or experiment.

scientific notation — A method of expressing very large and very small numbers to avoid using the many zeros that would be required otherwise.

thresholds of increasing complexity — Moments in the history of the Universe when specific ingredients under the right “Goldilocks Conditions” come together to create something new and more complex.

Universe — All the matter and energy in existence, as well as the space that contains it.

# 4-29-15

Lesson Outcomes

1. Describe and explain how views of the Universe have changed over time.
2. Explain how an evolution of ideas can lead to a scientific revolution; provide examples of some scientific revolutions.

# Claudius Ptolemy

Born on 85

The Earth was the center of the Universe, according to Claudius Ptolemy, whose view of the cosmos persisted for 1,400 years until it was overturned — with controversy — by findings from Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton. Alexandria became the second-largest city in the Roman Empire and a major source of Rome’s grain.he lived in Egypt, wrote in Greek, and bore a Roman first name, Claudius, indicating he was a Roman citizen — probably a gift from the Roman emperor to one of Ptolemy’s ancestors.His work enabled astronomers to make accurate predictions of planetary positions and solar and lunar eclipses, promoting acceptance of his view of the cosmos in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds and throughout Europe for more than 1400 years.Ptolemy saw the Universe as a set of nested, transparent spheres, with Earth in the center. He posited that the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and the Sun all revolved around Earth.This idea of the Universe did not fit exactly with all of Ptolemy’s observations. He was aware that the size, motion, and brightness of the planets varied.Muslim scholars mostly accepted Ptolemy’s astronomy. They referred to him as Batlaymus and called his book on astronomy al-Magisti, or “The Greatest.”

The

# Practice Quiz : 5/25/15

BADGES EARNED Persistence Answer a problem correctly after having some trouble with a few problems and sticking with the skill TOTAL ENERGY POINTS EARNED12020Points for questions

5 questions answered 80% correctly100Points for completionBonus points earned for completing this task

# 2.1 The big bang

5/27/15

He talks about words that would be used all over the place in science.Like he was talking about how orthodoxy will be used all over big history, and how the moment the big bang have to count for something.After this video i watched a short video about questions about ,how the big bang happened ?And why is happen?There was space and time,there was also matter and energy.Then what happen after it the univere was so hot you couldn't tell the different.

Activity:

Process

1. We have a sense of what happened during the first few minutes of the Big Bang.

2. The four fundamental forces are gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force.

3. As the Universe expanded, it got hotter. False ,The universe cooled down.

4. The formation of the first atoms had an effect on the Universe.

5. Cosmic background radiation is compelling evidence that supports the Big Bang theory.True

# 2.2 Claim testing 5/29/15

• The Earth is flat.
• The Universe is 13.8 billion years old.
• We should believe the information shared with us in Big History videos.
• The use of differing scales makes Big History different from other approaches to history.

Do you agree or disagree with these claims? Why?

I disagree with claims ,because the earth is not flat and we shouldn't always believe what we read over the internet.

astronomy — The branch of science that deals with the Universe and the various objects, like stars, planets, and galaxies, that we find within it. Cosmology and astrophysics are closely related to astronomy, and the words are sometimes used interchangeably. Cosmology focuses on the Universe’s largest scales in space and time, and astrophysics focuses on the properties and interactions of astronomical objects.

atom — A small unit of matter composed of protons, electrons, and usually neutrons. Atoms are basic building blocks of the matter we see in the Universe and on Earth. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines which chemical element it is.

authority — A respectable or credible source; an expert.

Big Bang — A theory, first articulated in the 1920s, proposing that the Universe started out extremely hot and dense and gradually cooled off as it expanded.

Cepheid — A star that fluctuates in brightness and provides astronomers with a reference they can use to measure great distances in the Universe. It was the identification of Cepheids in nearby galaxies that first proved that the Universe consists of more than one galaxy.

claim — An assertion that something is true.

claim testing — The use of strategies to decide whether a story or concept should or should not be trusted. The four strategies for claim testing that we use in Big History are intuition, authority, logic, and evidence.

collective learning — The ability to share, preserve, and build upon ideas over time.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) or Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) — Low-energy radiation pervading the entire Universe, released about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. At this point, the Universe had cooled sufficiently for atoms to form and allow radiation and matter to separate.

cosmology — The study of the Universe on its largest scales, including its origin and structure.

Doppler effect — The apparent stretching out or contraction of waves because of the relative movement of two bodies. The Doppler effect explains why an ambulance siren seems higher when the ambulance is traveling toward you than when it is moving away. It also helps astronomers identify whether objects such as stars or galaxies are moving toward us or away from us.

electromagnetism — One of the four fundamental forces or interactions, along with gravity, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force. Among other things, electromagnetism is responsible for the interaction between electrically charged particles, including holding electrons and protons together to form atoms. Electromagnetism is also responsible for essentially all molecular interactions.

electron — A negatively charged subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.

energy — The capacity to do work, associated with matter and radiation. Includes kinetic energy, potential energy, and chemical energy, among others.

evidence — Concrete, verifiable information that either supports or disproves a claim.

gravity — The fundamental force of attraction between any two objects that have mass.

helium — The second simplest of all chemical elements, helium has two protons and (almost always) two neutrons. Helium was produced soon after the Big Bang.

hydrogen — The simplest of all chemical elements, hydrogen has one proton. Hydrogen was the first element produced after the Big Bang and is the most common element in the Universe.

inflation — The idea that space and time (space-time) underwent an expansion at a rate much faster than the speed of light during the first 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang.

intuition — A “gut feeling” that is not necessarily based on logic or evidence.

light-year — A measure of distance in space; the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one year. It is equal to roughly 9.5 trillion kilometers, or 5.9 trillion miles.

logic — The application of systematic reasoning to arrive at a conclusion.

matter — The physical material of the Universe, including subatomic particles, atoms, and the substances that are built out of them.

neutron — An electrically neutral subatomic particle present in the nuclei of most atoms. Unlike protons, the number of neutrons in a given element can vary, giving rise to different isotopes of an element.

nucleus (atomic) — The extremely dense and positively-charged region at the center of an atom that consists of protons and neutrons.

parallax — The change in the apparent position of an object caused by movement of the observer.

proton — A subatomic particle with a positive electric charge. The number of protons in an atom (the atomic number) determines which element it is: For example, carbon atoms always have 6 protons, while iron atoms always have 26 protons.

redshift — The phenomenon in which light waves from distant galaxies are “stretched out,” which for visible light means a shift toward the red side of the spectrum. Redshift provides scientists with strong evidence that the Universe is expanding, since the expansion of space explains the stretching of the light waves.

scientific method — The process of gathering evidence to test and refine scientific theories.

space-time — The unification of space and time into a single four-dimensional continuum or “fabric.” Space makes up three of the dimensions, while time makes up the fourth, and cannot be fully separated from space. Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity holds that all objects with mass interact with space-time by bending it much like a person standing on a trampoline bends the trampoline.

telescope — An instrument used for viewing distant objects, including planets, stars, and galaxies.

thermodynamics (first law of) — One form of the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy may change forms but cannot be created or destroyed.

These words were used though out the whole lesson.

# 6/2/15

Most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like.Normal science, for example, often suppresses fundamental novelties[1] because they are necessarily subversive[2] of its basic commitments.Nevertheless, so long as those commitments retain an element of the arbitrary, the very nature of normal research ensures that novelty shall not be suppressed for very long.In these and other ways besides, normal science repeatedly goes astray. And when it does — when, that is, the profession can no longer evade[5] anomalies that subvert[6] the existing tradition of scientific practice

[1] novelty (n) - a new or unfamiliar thing or experience

[2] subversive (adj) - seeking to undermine the authority of established system or institution

[3] reiterated (adj) - said or done a number of times

[4] onslaught (n) - attack

[5] evade (v) - escape or avoid

[6] subvert (v) - undermine the authority of an established system

[7] complement (n) - a thing that completes or brings to perfection

# The route of normal science

These textbooks expound the body of accepted theory, illustrate many or all of its successful applications, and compare these applications with exemplary observations and experiments.Before such books became popular early in the nineteenth century (and until even more recently in the newly matured sciences), many of the famous classics of science fulfilled a similar function.Aristotle’s Physica, Ptolemy’s Almagest, Newton’s Principia and Opticks, Franklin’s Electricity, Lavoisier’s Chemistry, and Lyell’s Geology — these and many other works served for a time implicitly to define the legitimate problems and methods of a research field for succeeding generations of practitioners.Their achievement was sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity.By choosing it, I mean to suggest that some accepted examples of actual scientific practice — examples which include law, theory, application, and instrumentation together — provide models from which spring particular coherent traditions of scientific research.When the individual scientist can take a paradigm for granted, he need no longer, in his major works, attempt to build his field anew, starting from first principles and justifying the use of each concept introduced. That can be left to the writer of textbooks…

[8] consensus (n) - general agreement

[9] genesis (n) - the origin of the formation of something

[10] recondite (adj) - little known

# Henrietta Leavitt

Henrietta Swan Leavitt was born on July 4, 1868, in Lancaster, Massachusetts.Henrietta was the eldest of seven children, two of whom died as toddlers. When Henrietta was about 14 the family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, and in 1885 Henrietta enrolled in Oberlin College to prepare for the strict entrance requirements of the college she really wanted to attend — the Society for Collegiate Instruction of Women, later known as Radcliffe College (now part of Harvard University), in Cambridge, Massachusetts. When she was 20, in 1888, Leavitt returned to Massachusetts, to Cambridge, where her uncle lived, and achieved her dream to enroll in the Society for Collegiate Instruction for Women.Leavitt liked astronomy so much that after graduation she became a volunteer at the Harvard College Observatory as a “computer.”“Eventually, in 1902, Leavitt was hired at 30 cents an hour; she continued to work at the observatory, save some absences for illness and family obligations, the remaining 19 years of her life.One of Leavitt’s jobs was to examine the variable stars, which, unlike most stars, vary in brightness because of fluctuations within themselves.A certain group of variable stars, later called Cepheid variables, fluctuate in brightness (luminosity) in a regular pattern called their “period.” This period ranges from about one day to nearly four months.By comparing thousands of photographic plates, Leavitt discovered a direct correlation between the time it takes for a Cepheid variable to go from bright to dim and back to bright, and how bright the star actually is (its “intrinsic brightness”).

# Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe was the last great naked-eye astronomer.At the time of Tycho Brahe’s birth, the dominant model of the Universe had the Sun, Moon, and five planets rotating around the Earth on crystalline spheres against an unchanging backdrop of the stars. All of the star charts of that time were based on this geocentric (Earth-centered) system.Having shown the existing charts to be inadequate, Brahe then devoted his life to recording the location and movement of everything in the night sky with greater accuracy than anyone before him did.After nearly 10 years of diligently studying and recording the night sky, using instruments and techniques he had developed himself (the telescope was yet to be invented), Brahe was stunned to look up one night and see a bright star where none had been before.This discovery focused attention on Brahe from astronomers in Europe and beyond and greatly impressed the Danish King.Soon after taking up his work there, he observed a comet moving beyond the “sphere” of the Moon. By proving that the comet was not in our atmosphere, he shattered the theory that the planets were nested around the Earth on crystalline spheres and laid the foundation for our modern understanding of an evolving cosmos.

Big Bang Briefly - Janna Levin

What Happened at 380,000 Years ABB? - Cameron Gibelyou

The Expanding Universe - Tim McKay

Four Fundamental Forces - Khan Academy

Why Gravity Gets So Strong Near Dense Objects - Khan Academy

Introduction to Light - Khan Academy

Introduction to the Doppler Effect - Khan Academy

The Galileo Project

Stephen Hawking's Universe - PBS Online

Measuring the Universe with Cepheid Stars - Scientific American

# 3.O HOW WERE STARS FORMED?

In the start  of this lesson i watch a video that expalined how stars was formed.And he goes on how in the old days what people thought they were formed.Stars are like camp fires .Now i'm talk about space.This busy region of space in the constellation Ursa Major is called the "Lockman Hole." Each tiny dot in this tapestry of color is an entire galaxy, many of them containing hundreds of billions or more stars.This HDF image covers a speck of the sky, only about the width of a dime 75 feet away. Although the "field" is a very small fraction of space, it is considered representative of the typical distribution of galaxies in the Universe.This large cluster of galaxies (red dots in center), an early galactic metropolis, appears as it was 9.6 billion years ago, only about 4 billion years after the Big Bang. Astronomers were suprised to find such a well-populated cluster at an era when other clusters tended to be smaller.The spiral galaxy of Andromeda is one of the Milky Way's most prominent neighbors, about 2.5 million light years away.Young stars race through their life cycles in a few million years or less and explode as supernovae, leaving black holes and neutron stars behind (seen as pinkish blobs).Cat's Eye Nebula in the constellation Draco, also known as NGC 6543, may resemble a creature embryo or a cocoon.In less than a million years, NGC 6543 will collapse, becoming a less dramatic white dwarf.

# The purpose

They mark key moments where the Universe became irreversibly more complex. For each of these thresholds, there are a set of ingredients and a set of Goldilocks Conditions that result in new complexities. In this activity, you’ll explore the concept of thresholds in greater depth. First, you’ll look at the threshold card for Threshold 2. Using this as a model, you’ll create a threshold card of your own. Rather than highlighting a part of Big History, your threshold card will highlight a moment in your life where things became more complex. Until stars lit up, the Universe was relatively cold and dark. The intense heat and pressure and the energy generated by stars would lead to still more complexity, like planets and even life.Scientists, and all of us, continue to learn more about the formation and the lives of stars.

# 3.1 Creation of complex Elements

I watched a video that explain the air and whats in it .But now in the second video it explain the middle of the sun ,and talking about protions.He goes on to describe how when a star runs out of helium it starts creating denser and denser elements, until silicon turns into iron, "the star killer", but that it's after that in the last instant of the stars existence that we get the rest of the elements.And explain what stars gave us.The other video say that cell phones and computers are made up primarily of silicon.And Mr.green talked about how stuff was made in the belly of a star like everything around is made in the belly of a star.Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe and helium is second. Together they make up roughly 74% and 24% of all matter in the universe.

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# 3.2 Ways of knowing stars and elements

She talked about chemistry and what it is .What's it's a part of in this world .And what parts we see.The another video explained the tables in which chemistry falls in.

Building the Periodic Table of the Elements

Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist and teacher, devised the periodic table — a comprehensive system for classifying the chemical elements. Chemists began actively identifying elements, which are substances made up of just one kind of atom. But a century later, they still used a variety of symbols and acronyms to represent the different materials — there just wasn’t a common lexicon.This basic ingredient list, of which all matter exists, became known as the periodic table.For some of these missing pieces, he predicted what their atomic masses and other chemical properties would be. When scientists later discovered the elements Mendeleev expected, the world got a glimpse of the brilliance behind the periodic table.Mendeleev was born in 1834 in the far west of Russia’s Siberia, the youngest of a dozen or more children (reports vary). His family faced one crisis after another.Tragedy struck again in 1848, when the factory burned down, and the family faced poverty. Mendeleev’s mother was determined to get him an education, and traveled with him a great distance, to Moscow and then to St. Petersburg, to do so.In 1861, Mendeleev returned to Russia from research in Europe and later taught at the Technical Institute in St. Petersburg.Only 27 years old, he cultivated the persona of an eccentric, with a flowing beard and long, wild hair that he was known to trim only once a year. Still, he was a popular professor.He corrected the known atomic masses of some elements and he used the patterns in his table to predict the properties of the elements he thought must exist but had yet to be discovered.

All of the following terms appear in this unit. The terms are arranged here in alphabetical order.

carbon — A chemical element with six protons that is the basis for all known life on Earth.

chemical element — A substance whose atoms are all the same (that is, each atom contains the same number of protons as each of the other atoms in the substance). Sometimes, the word “element” is used to refer to the atoms or atomic nuclei themselves, as in the statement “Many elements are formed as products of dying stars.”

chemistry — The scientific study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of different forms of matter.

cluster — A group of galaxies held together by their mutual gravitational pulls.

cosmic horizon — The distance in our Universe beyond which we cannot see (46-billion to 47-billion light- years from Earth). Light from beyond the cosmic horizon has not yet had enough time (in the history of the Universe) to reach us.

density — The mass per unit of volume of a substance.

fusion (also called nuclear fusion) — The combining of lighter atomic nuclei into heavier atomic nuclei. This process can release a great deal of energy, and is what powers most stars.

galaxy — A huge system of stars, interstellar dust, and dark matter, held together by mutual gravitational pull.

ion — An atom that has a different number of protons than electrons, giving it an overall positive or negative charge.

iron — A chemical element with 26 protons. The most common chemical element in the planet Earth, iron forms the majority of Earth’s inner and outer core. The process of creating new elements through nuclear fusion in stars ends with iron, since fusing atomic nuclei together to produce elements heavier than iron does not produce energy.

Milky Way galaxy — The spiral-shaped galaxy that contains our Solar System.

neutron star — One possible end product of supernovae. When a star much more massive than our Sun runs out of fuel, its core may collapse to produce a ball of neutrons more dense than virtually anything else in the Universe.

periodicity — Regular, recurring trends. For example, a Cepheid variable star exhibits periodicity because its brightness changes in a regular, predictable way that repeats over time.

periodic table of elements — The generally accepted system for organizing the known chemical elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev first used this method of arrangement in 1869. As new elements are discovered, they are added to the table.

plasma — A state of matter in which protons and electrons are not bound together. This was the state of the entire Universe roughly before 380,000 years after the Big Bang, and is the normal state inside stars.

radioactivity — The breakdown of an unstable atomic nucleus, such as uranium, through the spontaneous emission of subatomic particles.

star — A huge, glowing ball of plasma held together by its own gravity. Stars, the first complex entities in the Universe, have structure, stability, and a sustained flow of energy due to nuclear fusion at their centers.

supercluster — A large group of galaxy clusters that together form some of the largest known structures in the Universe.

supernova — The explosion of a large star at the end of its life; most chemical elements are created by supernova explosions.