Waxing- a gradual increase in magnitude or extent.
Waning- a gradual decrease in magnitude or extent.
Gibbous- a moon that is more than half but less than a full moon.
Crescent- a shape resembling a segment of a ring tapering to points at the ends.
A waxing moon is the phase when more than half the moon is illuminated by sunlight and the illuminated portion of the moon is increasing. Occurs after the first quarter moon and before the full moon
A waning moon is the phase when more than half the moon is illuminated by sunlight and the illuminated portion of the moon is decreasing. Occurs after the new moon and before the first quarter moon.
A lunar cycle is a metonic cycle and lasts about 27-29 days
Copernicus was the man who got the full understanding of astronomy and concluded that the sun was in the middle of the solar system instead of the earth so that lead to our modern day knowledge of the solar system.
Earth orbits the sun elliptically and, at the same time, spins on an axis that is tilted relative to its plane of orbit.
The sun is our source of light, energy and heat, the changing intensity and concentration of its rays give rise to the seasons of winter, spring, summer and fall.