This photo of the moon was taken by the Galileo Space craft on December 7, 1992.
Waxing: "The moon at any time, before new moon and after full moon, the illuminated areas increase."
Waning:" The moon at any time, before new moon and after full moon, the illuminated areas decrease."
Gibbous:" The moon is more than half full, but not fully illuminated when you look at it from a perspective on earth."
Crescent: "A Crescent moon is part way between a half moon and a new moon."
Waxing moon: What you see when you have a waxing moon before the First Quarter looks like its smooth on the right side and fades when it gets to the left side. Also, the moon is more than half full like the picture above.
Waning moon: What you seen when you have a waning moon looks after the Last Quarter looks like its smooth on the left side and fades when it gets to the right side. Also, the moon is more than half full like the picture above.
Definition: "The Lunar Cycle is a period 19 years after the new and full moons return on the same days of the year."
The Lunar Cycle is 29.53059 days long and that is when it makes a complete orbit around the Earth.
"Nicolai Copernicus changed our understanding of astronomy when he proposed that the Sun, not Earth, was in the center of the solar system." Nicolai Copernicus lived till 1473-1543 and because of him, we now know the relationship between the Earth and the Sun.
Their are 4 seasons, Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall. We have seasons becasue we can keep track of the suns setting and rising points through the year. It was difficult during the ancient times to keep track of the science behind the seasons.
In winter the sun is closest to Earth. Winter isn't warm becasue the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun and the south enjoys summer. Sometime around June it stats to become warm because the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun and the South begins to feel like winter.
We have lunar eclipses every 2 months. We don't have it every month because the moon's orbit is inclined about 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit.
We have day and night because the Earth rotates which spins on it's axis, North and South pole. The earth spins towards the sun which is day and spins away from the sun which is night.
Equinox: The time and date at which the sun crosses the celestial equator 2 times a year, the day and night are equal length.
Solstice: "Two times a year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days."