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1. metaphors- describe one thing as if it were something else.

2. personification- gives human qualities to something nonhuman.

3. simile- us like or as to compare two unlike things.

4. alliteration- the repetition of consonant sounds t the beginnings of words.

5. repetition- the repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.

6. assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

7. consonance- the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds

8. onomatopoeia- the use of words that imitate sounds.

9. rhythm- the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.

10. rhyme- the repetition of sounds at the end of words.

11. lines- a unit of language into which a poem is divided, which operates on principles which are distinct from and not necessarily coincident with grammatical structures, such as the sentence or clauses in sentences.

12. rhyme scheme- the ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or verse.

13. stanzas- a group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem; a verse.

14. meter- a unit of rhythm in poetry, the pattern of the beats.

15. lyric poetry- expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in a musical verse. The speaker and poet are not always the same person. Lyric poetry is a broad category that includes many specific types of poems such as sonnets, odes and elegies.

16. sonnets- fourteen line poems with a formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme. Their subject often vary, but the purpose is to praise.

17. odes- poems with formal tones, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.

18. elegies- formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.

19. narrative poems- tells a story in a verse. Narrative poems have elements like those in a short story, such as setting,plot, and characters.

20. epics- a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.

21. ballads- they are structured like songs with verses that move the action forward and repeated refrains that drive home the main message.

22. free verse poetry- is defined by its lack of strict structure. It has no regular meter, no intentional rhyme, no fixed line length, and no specific stanza pattern. Instead, the poet chooses a loose structure that fits the poem.

23. limericks- humorous, five line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.

24. concrete poems- in this poem, the words are arranged on the page to for a shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem. They are often lighthearted or humorous in tone and their structure is loose without regular meter, though they may have rhyme.

25. haikus- short, unrhymed poems, often about nature. The form originated n Japan, but its simplicity and power has made it popular worldwide. Its tone is often thoughtful, but can be playful as well. Its line and rhythmic structure is three lines with five syllables in the first line, seven in the second, then five in the thirds.


1. aspect- appearance to the eye or mind; look.

2. bum- a person who avoids work and sponges on others; loafer; idler.

3. cunning- skill employed in a shrewd or sly manner, as in deceiving; craftiness; guile.

4. gouged- an act of extortion; swindle.

5. haggard- having a gaunt, wasted, or exhausted appearance, as from prolonged suffering, exertion, or anxiety;worn.

6. obese- very fat or overweight; corpulent.

7. pensioners- a person who receives or lives on a pension; a hireling.

8. persimmons- any of several trees of the genus Diospyros, especially D. virginiana, of North America, bearingastringent, plumlike fruit that is sweet and edible when ripe, and D. kaki, of Japan and China, bearingsoft, red or orange fruit.

9. saloon- a place for the sale and consumption of alcoholic drinks.

10. surcease- to cease from some action; desist.

11. radiant- emitting rays of light; shining; bright.

12. renewed- to restore or replenish.

13. vat- a large container, as a tub or tank, used for storing or holding liquids.

14. vivid- strikingly bright or intense, as color, light, etc.

15. yearn- to have an earnest or strong desire; long.