By: T'Shea Johnson
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th and 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people's homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living conditions for the poor and working classes.
Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural communities where their daily existences revolved around farming. Life for the average person was difficult, as incomes were meager, and malnourishment and disease were common. People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines.
Innovation and Industrialization
The textile industry, in particular, was transformed by industrialization. Before mechanization and factories, textiles were made mainly in people's homes (giving rise to the term cottage industry), with merchants often providing the raw materials and basic equipment, and then picking up the finished product. Workers set their own schedules under this system, which proved difficult for merchants to regulate and resulted in numerous inefficiencies. In the 1700's, a series of innovations led to ever-increasing productivity, while requiring less humans energy.
Industrialization moves beyond Britain
The British enacted legislation to prohibit the export of their technology and skilled workers; however, they had little success in this regard.