Chapter 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
This chapter discusses both the psychological and biomedical therapies used to treat psychological disorders.
Psychoanalysis-Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. He believed that the patent's free associations, dreams, resistances, and transference-and the therapist's interpretation of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. Psychodynamic therapy is derived from psychoanalysis.
Behavior therapy-Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Cognitive therapy-Therapy that teaches new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thought intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Biomedical therapy-Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
Sigmund Freud-Developed psychoanalysis and influenced the development of psychodynamic therapy.
Carl Rogers-Developed client-centered therapy and created the concept of active listening.
B.F. Skinner-Studied behavior.
Ivan Pavlov-Studied behavior.
- Developed by Freud
- Emphasizes childhood experiences as the cause of present troubles
- Utilizes free association; saying whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial
- Therapist interprets meaning, gives patient insight
- Psychodynamic therapy is now more commonly used
- Client-centered therapy: Developed by Carl Rogers, focuses on the person's conscious self-projections, therapists listens and does not interrupt
- Active listening and unconditional positive regard are big components
- Focus on treating phobias and anxiety disorders (counterconditioning is used)
- Exposure therapies: Expose people to fears in hopes of desensitizing people to them
- Aversive conditioning: Making a positive response to a harmful stimulus (alcohol) negative (usually only works in the short run)
- Teaches people new and adaptive ways of thinking
- Focus on changing thinking and behavior
- Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Triggering eye movement to reduce anxious thoughts, its effect has been disputed
- Light exposure therapy: Using timed daily doses of intense light to help relieve seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a form of depression that arises during the winter months
- Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
- Antipsychotic drugs: Used to treat schizophrenia and other severe thought disorders, may produce tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movement of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs)
- Antianxiety drugs: Control anxiety and agitation
- Antidepressants: Drugs used to treat depression and anxiety, including selective-serotonin-uptake-inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Eletroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A form of treatment for severely depressed patients which involves sending a brief electric current through a patients brain
- Psychosurgery: Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue, used only as a last resort