Civil Rights Map
Brown vs. Board of Education
a. Brown vs. Board of Education was a Supreme Court case which ruled a previous case Plessy vs. Ferguson to be unconstitutional. This meant that separate but equal public schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.
b. The Brown vs. Board of Education case was based off Oliver Brown and his daughter Linda. Linda was denied the right to go to a school that was only 5 blocks away from her house because she was black. Instead she had to walk several miles through dangerous conditions to go to a school that was for black children.
c. This Supreme Court ruling was significant because now public schools would have to be shared between races. This ruling paved the way for many civil rights movements for years to come. It also gave many black people hope for the future, making the civil rights movement seem even more feasible, turning the movement into a revolution.
Boycott of Segregated Bus System
a. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a several month boycott against public buses because of the unfair segregation on the bus. People would walk and bike for miles to avoid taking the bus. The boycott started on the day of Rosa Parks hearing after she refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. The boycott ended with the Supreme Court saying segregation on public buses was in fact unconstitutional.
b. The person who sparked the start of the Montgomery Bus Boycott was Rosa Parks. Martin Luther King Jr., along with many other people supporting civil rights, also participated in the bus boycott.
c. The bus boycott is significant to the civil rights movement for many reasons. One big reason is because it was one of the first big protests against the unfair treatment of African Americans. It also was the event that started Martin Luther King Jr. becoming one of the most prominent civil rights activists in our history.
Integration of Little Rock High School
a. The integration of central high school was the integration of 9 black teens into Little Rock High School in Little Rock Arkansas, a racially charged city. These nine teens faced angry mobs and harsh treatment as they tried to go up against racism and face it head on. The national guard was called by the Arkansas governor to prevent the kids from going into the school. The legal actions had to take place and police had to be called in to escort and protect these nine teens due to the intense anger many had towards the fact that black and white students were being put in the same school.
b. The nine black students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School were Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls. They were referred to as the Little Rock Nine. The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, showed how racist Arkansas was at the time when he sent in the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the teens from going into the school.
c. The integration of the Little Rock Nine into a racially charged public school was significant to the civil rights movement because it was the first test of the Brown vs. Board of Education court ruling. It also showed how our country was divided and against each other.
First Lunch Counter Sit-In
a. The first lunch counter was conducted in Greensboro North Carolina at a restaurant called Woolworth’s. It was done by four college students who sat down and asked to be served, but were refused. They were asked to leave but remained in their seats, protesting the unfair treatment.
b. Ezell A. Blair, Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond were the four college students who started the lunch counter sit ins.
c. The first sit in sparked a six month long protest where hundreds of people from around the community participated in sit ins, successfully demonstrating the need for fair and equal treatment.
Black Students and Civil Rights Workers
Sit in White Section of Bus Station
a. Albany has had many famous demonstrations for the civil rights movements. In 1961 some black students and civil rights workers took a stand against segregation. They specifically took a stand against bus segregation by sitting in the white section of the bus and not moving.
b. The Albany Movement was first started by local activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the NAACP. The organization was led by William G. Anderson, a local African American civil rights activists.
c. When black students and civil rights workers sat in a white section on a bus they started the Albany Freedom rides which led to many other freedom movements throughout Albany. The Albany movement got the attention of many people, including Martin Luther King Jr. who got involved in the Albany movement.
Integration of the University of Mississippi
a. The University of Mississippi was a segregated college located in a racially charged state. James Meredith became the first black man admitted to Ole Miss. He was denied when he applied two previous times, but after getting the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund behind him, together they fought this saying he was denied because of his race. They ended up winning and James Meredith was admitted to the University of Mississippi.
b. James Meredith is an Amercan Civil rigths leader. He was a writer, political advisor, and Air Force Veteran. James Meredith decide to attend Ole Miss because according to Kennedy and the Kennedy administration, this was his right and he wanted to test this to see if there would actually be follow through on this. James Meredith also started the March against Fear, a march to highlight racsim in the south and to help register blacks to vote.
c. James Meredith becoming a student at Ole Miss was significant to the civil rights movement because it put pressure on the government to protect his civil rights like they claimed they were going to do.
Murder of NAACP Leader Medgar Evers
a. After returning from a meeting of NAACP lawyers, Medgar Evers, a big civil rights activist, was shot in the back, the bullet then going through his heart. Medgar Evers was brought to a hospital where he was denied service because his was black. It was not until after it was explained who he was that he got treatment. He died shortly after his arrival to the hospital.
b. Medgar Evers was killed on June 12, 1963 by Byron De La Beckwith. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. It was in front of a crowd of 3000 people.
c. The assassination of Medgar Evers ignited a strong reaction in the people supporting civil rights. His death brought on new and stronger civil rights movements. He was remembered in many ways and his death was memorialized through different movements for civil rights.
March on Washington
a. The March on Washington is one of the most famous and remembered civil rights movements. It was also one of the largest. It was estimated the march had from 200,000-300,000 people participate in it. It was a march organized by civil rights leaders that was held in Washington. All the marchers stood in front of the Lincoln Memorial and listened to Martin Luther King Jr. give his famous “I had a dream” speech. The March on Freedom was to create equality for jobs and freedom.
b. The March on Washington had around 250,000 people participate in it. One big participant who was in the March on Washington was Martin Luther King Jr. He gave his famous “I have a dream” speech which is still remembered and repeated to this day.
c. The March on Washington sparked a fire on the civil rights movement and saved it. It also brought more attention to the civil rights movement. It is one of the most famous civil rights movements that is still remembered today.
Campaign to Desegregate Birmingham
a. The campaign to desegregate Birmingham was called the Birmingham Campaign or Birmingham Movement. Its purpose was to get things in Birmingham to be equally integrated. This movement gained more international attention when the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) bombed a church, killing four innocent young girls on a Sunday morning. The Birmingham movement was peaceful protests but they were faced with harsh violent treatment from police.
b. Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley and Addie Mae Collins were the four innocent girls killed in the church bombing by the KKK. Famous civil rights activists like Medgar Evers and Martin Luther King Jr. got involved in the Birmingham Campaign.
c. One significant thing that happened in Birmingham was that Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed and wrote his famous piece called Letter from Birmingham Jail. The Birmingham Campaign was considered one of the most influential campaigns in the civil rights movement. John F. Kennedy even spoke about the events that went down in Birmingham.
Murder of Three Civil Rights Workers
a. Three civil rights activists were killed by a local white nights KKK group, the Neshoba County Sheriffs Office, and the Philadelphia Police Department. These three men were working on a campaign called “Freedom Summer” which was a campaign to help get more African Americans to vote.
b. The three innocent men who were killed were James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael “Mickey” Schwerner. Seven people were convicted and served minor sentences for their actions.
c. The assassination of the three civil rights activists made even more people want to join and fight against the unfair treatment of African Americans, It also was a major national case that attracted a lot of attention. The FBI was even ordered to find out who killed these three innocent men.
The March from Selma
a. The March from Selma to Montgomery were a series of marches of 54 miles across the highway and the Edmund Pettus Bridge that were designed to help voting rights for African Americans. There were three total marches, some led by Martin Luther King Jr. The first march became violent between the protesters and police. This day became known as Bloody Sunday.
b. Many people marched from Selma to Montgomery and around 300 were arrested. Martin Luther King Jr. and other famous civil rights activists participated in the march from Selma to Montgomery.
c. This march was one of the most violent parts of the civil rights movement. It made many people want to join in the movement and fight against segregation.
The Assassination of Martin
Luther King Jr.
a. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the most well-known and influential civil rights leaders in American history. He was well known for his involvement in movements and his “I have a dream” speech. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968 at Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
b. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated at the age of 39 by James Earl Ray.
c. The assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. was the killing of one of America’s most influential leaders. It made people feel very strong about the civil rights movement and they wanted to follow through on getting equal rights for Martin Luther King Jr.